Opinionated essay on Racism in America

We bury it back in our minds, not able to admit the pressing problem in our nation. All of the groups in our nation demonstrate racism and believe that they are right for hating a certain type of people. The Klux Klux Klan, Aryans, Skinheads, Neo Nazis, and many more are a good example of the racism that still lingers. There is also a substantial amount of racial profiling now ever since the September 1 lath tragedies.

Many people ridicule Middle Easterners and people who are considered to have their color” because some of us think that since a few Middle Eastern terrorists bombed us, they all hate us and want us to die. This all started with slavery and the Africans being sent away from their homelands to break their backs working on our farms. We spit on them, treated them like sit, and expected them to work hard for us and like It. Many of the white people do feel sorry and are guilty for what we did to the African American ancestors, but there’s nothing we can do to take it back.

It is history and we cannot change it. There is still schism towards African Americans. Whenever you hear a murder, robbery, assault, or drug bust on the news, they say it was an African American. There are Just as many white people that commit those same crimes, but they aren’t on the news nearly as much. Affirmative Action In today’s society has nothing to do with slavery and If It does, It really shouldn’t. We use Affirmative Action to make a school or work environment have diversity, not pity on what we did. Affirmative Action Is to make sure minorities have the same opportunities as everyone else.

Olympics Racism

A Greek triple-jumper and a Swiss soccer player were both banned for separate offensive comments, and a Lithuanian fan was arrested because of his aggravated behavior during a basketball game. Even the London Olympics is not immune to racism. Whenever nations all over the world compete, racial discrimination rears its ugly head. For some reason, when it is displayed in the context of sports, it is seen as more acceptable. Switzerland Michel Marginally, who was sore about losing to South Korean soccer team was expelled from the games for calling them a “bunch of oncologist” that “can go burn. It was under the terms of the International Olympic Committees’ code of conduct that athletes must show mutual respect, and tweeting those insensitive words clearly showed disrespect for the basic Olympian value. Another was Grace’s Uvula Pictographic who never even made it to the games because of her twitter post that read, “So many Africans in Greece at least West Nile mosquitoes will eat homemade food. ” She apologized for the “unfortunate and tasteless Joke.

Her coach George Pompoms complained that the punishment had been too harsh, but the triple Jumper’s tweet was indeed more abrasive than the penalty itself. The last one was the arrest of a man who was making Nazi gestures and monkey chants during the game between Lithuania and Nigeria at the basketball arena. His lawyer said on a trial that he believed his gestures and behaviors were acceptable at sports matches, and later on was fined E,500 for the Incident. Sports, when mixed with the hyper-passionate supports of people’s favorite teams or sectional squads, turns into a volatile mix of ugliness.

The unsportsmanlike conduct and ugly behavior by some players and fans have overshadowed the positive nature of the games. Sports are the greatest equalizer In this world. It Is where the color of our skin, culture, and beliefs does not matter, and all that counts Is the ability and the color of Jersey. Racism Is still an Issue even In the grandest event In the world. Discriminatory acts should be strongly and rapidly condemned In all domains, especially In sports.

Noughts and Crosses, Racism

I was wondering if we can have strawberries at the salad bar. Could we also have strawberry smoothie for children under year 7-8. About the strawberries. If you had not much time left to cut them, it does not matter because you can Just rinse them under the water and put them in a bowl ready for lunch.

Sometimes when I would like a Jacket potato the sign on the board will say but when I come up to the dinner ladies they say there is no more left. But if they had no more potatoes from year. Year, 7, 8 will not have any because all the young ones had eaten them all. So if there are no more potatoes left they should take the sign down otherwise we will get confused, or cook some more.

Also once I was going to have a Jacket potato Tibia was in front of me and she also wanted a potato o when she asked the dinner lady,the dinner lady gave her one and said she can have the last one as well so I could not have any. Sometimes even on the cutlery there is still mashed peas on them and if there was Jam tart for pudding there will be sticky Jam on it to. And also sometimes (not all the times) there is some hair in the food so some of us would like the dinner ladles to wear a hair nets. Kind regards Marie-Claire Potts

Neutrality and Racism quote

Neutrality and Racism quote “If we remain neutral to race discrimination, we can not move forward as a society” Argument Essay AP LANG Clapboarded By Alamo Neutrality Essay As children we’re taught to never fight back when a classmate steals a beloved smack time treat or retaliate when they take our cubby. And as we continue to grow older, we’re constantly reminded to turn the other cheek when someone is spiteful towards us- after all, forgiveness and love is considered to be of utmost importance according o the word of God.

However, while remaining neutral to situations may avoid conflict and confrontation, it also leaves us undecided and apathetic towards any remote yearn for change. By not demanding change, we are allowing unacceptable behavior to continue. With historical events such as the call rights movement and current events such as bullying, neutrality sets a Limit on human capability for Improvement and understanding. Change is spearheaded by a shift in mindset rather than staying neutral to the norm.

And in order to change someone’s mindset, we must be wholly determined ourselves. From the famous words of Martin Luther King’s, ‘l have a dream’ speech, we can feel his burning desire to inspire the American people. Although King refused to remain neutral to the treatment towards people of color, he always advocated nonviolent protests. Through pleas of Judging someone on their character rather than their skin tone, he urged America to end lynching, grant everyone full, equal, and promised rights, and grant well deserved tolerance of race.

If King and other activists such as Malcolm X and Rosa Parks chose to remain neutral to their maltreatment, the United States very well may have been stuck in the same sass’s mentality for years to come. These African American leading figures prove the point being made- identifying and finding solutions are necessary to move forward. Staying neutral, In essence, means we are condoning the inappropriate behavior or actions being done. Currently in the 21st century, technology is becoming a vital role in our everyday lives.

However, with new ways of technology and outbursts of social media, a new trend has been created- cyber bullying. Granted the security of a monitor and the comfort of an office chair, millions of online users are using the internet as an outlet to bully others. When we are online and see this type of behavior, often found In forms of curse words or appearance ‘Jokes’, we are often following the bystander effect and staying ;neutral’ to these acts of hatred. By being a bystander, we are not taking the initiative to stop this bullying, therefore not instilling need for change.

Thankfully, organizations such as ‘stop’ and ‘underlying’ have taken it upon themselves to find solutions to this ongoing and severe problem. Bullying online leads to thousands of suicides, specifically in teenagers. Staying neutral to this situation may mean one life wasted; and by trying to end bullying may neutral is almost never an effective route. By remaining neutral we limit our capability to really understand and accept others. Awareness and being proactive is key to an improved world.

Museums and racism

The Museum as a Racist Institute Racism, particularly against those of African descent, Is a very dark past for the Western world, one that still prevalently haunts and Invades the future. As racism Is a part of societies’ history, cultural Institutions that present said history, such as museums, deal with the Idea of racism every day In the exhibits within their walls.

Many efforts are made to show how terrible the racism of the past was and Is, but the line between the racism of the past and the racism of the present is often too fine to produce correct racial minority celebration. Instead, what starts as a museum’s effort to celebrate ethnic minorities and be inclusive, results in the continuation and resurgence of the bigotry they were attempting to prevent. The museum’s racism comes in the form of White dominant actions and thoughts, producing the marketing and selling of how the museum perceives black culture.

Racism within the institution occurs when the museum practices ignorance by presenting only their interpretation of the minority they are trying to represent. The lack of Black artists in museums Is a starting point for examining how the museum Is a racist Institution. In 2007 It was found In New York Museums that 82 to 100 percent of exoskeletons featured only White artists (Cooks 201 1 The lack of African American art In museums sends the message that It Is not worthy of being shown in a museum.

This is proved by the reactions to the 1969 Harlem on my Mind exhibition at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, an exhibit that had good intentions of representing Harem’s Harlem but instead failed and represented the curator Thomas Hiving, a White male’s interpretation of Harlem. Despite Harlem having a rich visual art scene, Hiving decided to exclude artwork by Harem’s artists ND instead only include photographs and video (Cook 2007). This decision was made against the Harlem communities’ wishes and made the Harlem on my Mind exhibit a sociological show, researched by non-Harlem residents.

The lack of representation of Black art In museums Is reflected through the fact that African Americans are half as likely as White people to visit a museum because they have the perception of the museum as a racist Institution (Fall 1993), If there were more African Americans involved in the creation of Harlem on my Mind they would have recognized how this would be offensive, like the Harlem Cultural Council did, and iced it. The museum is a predominantly White institution, so without consultation from the minority they are representing it presents racism in history the way a White person would: with ignorance.

The Henry Willet pottery collection at the Brighton Museum and Art Galley attempts to trace the history of England with its objects, including many items that represent minority groups of Britain (Shiner 1999). There is no attempt made by the Brighton Museum to try and explain the negative connotations of the figures of racism, causing the racist Images to be still active. This jack of explanation regarding racism was further exemplified at the Royal Ontario Museum’s 1989 Intro the Heart of Africa exhibit, where It was expected that African culture would be celebrated.

Instead viewers found themselves surrounded by the way of life in quotations like “barbarous custom” (Butler & Shelton 2007). There was no information to suggest how wrong and racist the colonists were, simply that the racism happened and it continued to be felt as it was put on display. A study by the Exhibits Design Division concluded that the ROOM did not have enough knowledge about the interests of the black community ((Butler & Shelton 1999). This lack of knowledge is the outcome of not having enough Black staff working on the exhibit or enough people of African decent who were consulted.

Instead of the museum showing the negative effects of racism, it simply puts it on display, prolonging racist ideas within the public consciousness. Racism, while generally condemned in today’s society, is a part of its past that unfortunately still occurs today. It is the museum’s Job to instruct and educate the public, but proper education is prevented when minority groups being represented are not appropriately consulted. This results in White people and the museum Just racketing and selling how they perceive Black culture, and loses the whole point of teaching and breaking racial boundaries.

Although attitudes towards minorities have dramatically improved over the past few decades, there is still a long way to go. At this point it seems as if there is any racial equality progress coming from these cultural diverse exhibitions like the museums intended, it is not from the institution itself but from societies angry response to the institution. Works Cited A. R. Shiner (1999): Selling Racism: History, Heritage, Gender and the (Re)production f Prejudice, Patterns of Prejudice, 33:4, 67-86 Butler, S. R. , & Shelton, A. (2007).

Contested representations: Revisiting into the heart of Africa. Broadside Press. Cooks, B. R. (2007). Black Artists and Activism: Harlem on My Mind (1969). American Studies 48(1), 5-39. Mid-American Studies Association. Retrieved March 18, 2013, from Project MUSE database. Fall, J. H. (1993). Leisure decisions influencing African-American use of museums. Landscape and Urban Planning, 15, 107-117. Sullivan, R. (2004). Evaluating the ethics and consciences of museums. Reinventing the museum: Historical and contemporary perspectives on he paradigm shift, 257-268.

Annotated Bibliography of Prejudice, Patterns of Prejudice, 33:4, 67-86 This article explores historical racism and it’s prevalence today in museums and art galleries, particularly in The Henry Willet Collection and The Brighton Museum and Art Gallery. As well, through case studies involving the Hottentots Venus and the Golliwog, Shiner explains how cultural racism is making it difficult to move beyond relates making money to selling racist objects, and how institutions may think it is okay to continue selling something that is openly racist Just because it is very popular o buy.

This is expanded and relates further to my paper as the institution is selling racist heritage by both promoting and refuting intolerance. This results in the packaging of ethnic minority groups, which is constantly the problem when displaying historical items produced in and by racist culture. The most helpful part of this article was the fact that is discusses the cultural irony our society is filled with, and how using it can superficially defend anything to be playful. Butler, S. R. , & Shelton, A. (2007). Contested representations: Revisiting into the heart of Africa. Broadside Press.

This book revisits the Royal Ontario Museum’s 1989 exhibition Into the Heart of Africa which was curates by Jeanne Cannibal and ended up being thought of as highly racist against Africans, and offensive to the African Canadians who experienced it. One of the most offensive qualities was that the exhibition was displayed from the soldiers’ and missionaries’ viewpoint, rather than from a cultural African stand. Therefore, in an ironic fashion terms such as “barbarous custom” were put in quotations throughout the exhibit, but many did not see the irony as much as the intolerance the words represented.

I think this article is helpful to me as it not only points out what went wrong with the exhibition, but also what the Room’s next steps should be to address historical and contemporary racism, and relate this to the other case studies I am looking at. I also think this book is very good because it does not seem bias and openly attack Jeanne Cannibal, but instead looks a bit at where she was coming from as well to better understand how museum racism comes about. BROWN,’N DRAINING special to The Globe and Mail. (1990, Mar 24). Black groups protest African show at ‘racist Ontario museum’. The Globe and Mail (1936-Current).

Retrieved from http://search. Protest. Com/deceive/1144113547? Accounted=11233 This Globe and Mail article reports on the protests that were happening outside the Royal Ontario Museum during the Into the Heart of Africa exhibition. It describes the irony in the exhibition that white visitors may see but the black visitors do not, and how the show gave an overly colonial impression instead of celebrating African culture. It also reports on how it took a long time, four months, for the black community to mobile protest against the exhibition, and how the Room’s response as that they have no plans to change the show.

However, many other museums cancelled exhibiting it. This article is helpful because it contains factual information on why people were protesting Into the Heart of Africa at the time of its exhibiting. As well, the article includes a photograph that was included in the exhibit; a white women missionary with African women washing clothes, implying to me, and I think many who saw the exhibit while running, that African women didn’t know how to wash clothes before White people showed them how. Studies 48(1), 5-39. Mid-American Studies Association.

Retrieved March 18, 2013, from Project MUSE database. Another case study, Harlem on my mind, was an exhibit that opened in 1969 at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City that sought to explore the cultural history of Harlem, NYC, which was predominately black. With seemingly good intentions to celebrate Harem’s culture and its progress as a community, the exhibition failed and proved racist because of a multitude of problems and issues the Met did not address, such as not including any paintings or prints by black Harlem artists.

This is a great article for my paper because it really examines how important it is for the museum to reach out to the culture that their exhibit is about, to help curate for accuracy and proper celebration. As well this collaboration between the culture minority and the institutive will greatly help, if not eliminate, the racist overtones an exhibit should be trying to overcome. Also useful is the information this article provides on what caused social change and a spring of representation of minorities at museums, stating it was not the Meet’s “Harlem on my Mind” but instead the people’s reaction to it.

Cooks, B. R. (2011). Exhibiting blackness: African Americans and the American art museum. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press. In this book, Bridget Cooks analyzes the most significant exhibitions of African American art, discussing the issues involved with exhibiting cultural differences. Although the whole book is very useful, I did not look at all of it, only particularly the conclusion drawn which included a survey conducted by Pineal.

This found that 82 to 100 percent of the exhibitions in major art museums in New York featured White artists exclusion. I find this information very helpful when determining why African Americans find museums racist because it is hard facts which prove a point. This kook is also written by the same author as Black artists and activism: Harlem on my mind which is helpful because the two overlap, especially when talking about that exhibition. Fall, J. H. (1993). Leisure decisions influencing African-American use of museums.

Landscape and Urban Planning, 15, 107-117. This article is comprised of two research studies: the first comparing 50 African American visitors and 50 white visitors to science-museums, the second a multi- factorial analysis of African-American leisure behavior. The first study indicated that African American museum visitors and white museum visitors are both well educated tit a higher education than the population as a whole. The second study found out that African Americans are half as likely to visit museums as white people.

Although the first study is not particularly useful to me, the second study is very interesting as it comes with evidence, much of which was subjective, that the past as well as present perception of museums is that they are racist institutions. I also find it very helpful that for most surveyed, there was a desire to learn more about their African American culture, but that interest is not reflecting in African American attendance at live, is because white people, who don’t fully understand how to rightfully represent African American culture for black people, make these institutional things.

Sullivan, R. (2004). Evaluating the ethics and consciences of museums. Reinventing the museum: Historical and contemporary perspectives on the paradigm shift, 257-268. In this essay Robert Sullivan argues that museums are moral educators and must speak with confidence on ethical issues such as race and that museums are generally racist and sexist institutions. He presents how in 1976 the developing New York State Museum organized a sex equity committee to examine exhibit themes, linguistics and design.

The committee found that certain groups, women and minority groups, are underrepresented in exhibits and other instructional materials. This essay is very helpful as it illustrates the effect that underrepresented of groups in museums has on the public which visits it, and I found this helpful to further point out how museums are racist. However, even though this essay is about racial and ethic representation in institutions it is more about gender and sexism, which I am not focusing on in my paper.

Multiculturalism: Racism and Biological Racial Identities

This view is sometimes associated with the claim that historians and social scientist should eliminate talk of race and racial Identities from heir vocabularies, a proposition that Is often rejected by those who would defend a social constructionist account of racial identities” (Williams). The debate about multiculturalism is less well focused on the word itself but generally concerns the justification of multicultural educational practices in the context of political recognition.

The central question here, is “whether multiculturalism should be embraced for the reason that it advances the self-esteem of individuals belonging to socially oppressed groups” O. E. African-Americans) by giving them the ability to covers the reflection or representation of their Identities In an amended decree. (Williams) Anthony APIPA author of “Color Conscious: The Political Morality of Race” illustrates how “race” is based on fiction but views racism as its factual outcome.

His article begins with an in-depth analysis of historical thoughts on race to illustrate why the current concept of race fails to adequately explain social distinctions in the united States. And it ends by offering the concept of “racial Identity’ as the basis for a more productive discourse, one that “can be the basis of resistance to racism” by allowing for the redefinition of personal and collective identities. Racial injustice may be the most morally and intellectually vexing problem in the public life of this country. How should we respond? ” (APIPA, peg. 10). He believes society should work towards eliminating racial identity. He goes further to state the reasons why “race” should be phased out, he looks at race as not Just an actual biological category, but one that has been constructed by society to Identify (categorize) persons. With this labeling comes racial delimitation and social Injustices.

Instead of having “race”, he goes on to illustrate how people should be identified, biological verses mainly skin color. APIPA articulates that there are genetic differences in people that results in a variety in skin tones and physical features. Also location plays a huge role in identifying groups of people, he recognizes that people who have derived from the same places share similar genes. The genetic differences between these populations tend to be more accurate than the categorization of “race. “There are heritable characteristics, possessed by members of our species, which allow us to divide them onto a small set of races, in such a way that all members of those races share certain traits and tendencies with each other that they do not share with members of any other race” (APIPA,pas. 54-57). In other words Pasha’s supports an idea of using color as an Identifier instead of race as a descriptive. One is the “additional” view of race, (accounts for the meaning of the term “race” by laying a set of rules for applying that term).

The second, the “referential” account of race, the causal theory: “if you want to know what object a word refers to, find the hint in the world that gives the best causal explanation of the central features of uses of that word. ” “APIPA explains The difference between the two, is that the referential view(causal theory) requires an historical investigation of the meaning of race that the additional view does not explain” (But).

Since “exploring the history of the term is central to understanding what it means,” APIPA does Just that and gives the history of the ideas of some respected elites of the United States such as Thomas Jefferson. This exploration results in a thorough account of how race evolved into biological and scientific conceptions of preferences among human beings. By revealing the falsity of these conceptions, “APIPA leads us to a persuasive conclusion that neither the additional nor referential accounts (causal theory) explains social distinctions” (But).

From the additional view, race was supposed to show the “correlation between the biological and the moral, literary, or psychological characters of humans,” which “has turned out not to be true. On the referential view, two possible race concepts exist, neither of which is particularly helpful in racial discourse” (But). Moreover, the use of illogical characteristics to define groups fails to establish any correlation with group characteristics that are important for moral or social life, which begins at the core of the racial discourse.

In Luscious Outlaws “Conserve Races? In Defense of W. E. B. Dubos,” he talks about the importance of race and why we as a society need to find different ways to conserve race. “The challenge is to find ways to conserve a revised understanding of race that is both socially useful and consistent with a revised notion of democratic justice that is appropriately balance between recognizing and valuing racial and ethnic cultural groupings. ” In other words Outlaws main claim is to find ways for society to preserve race and their identities.

He wants to develop a “strategy’ that allows people to identify with what they may choose, without the association of social/racial stereotyping. He believes the problem is not the idea of racial grouping but the misconceptions from ignoring the differences in people’s backgrounds(ethnicities) and their practices (culture). Outlaws meaning of race and why it should be conserved clashes with Anthony Pasha’s idea of racial eliminative. Outlaws respond to Pasha’s belief in eliminating race is clear and straight to the point.

It states that ignoring the fact that there are racial differences between people is not going to help people better understand one another. Outlaw believes that in order for there to be a such thing as social harmony people must first acknowledge that people are different in their own respects, and ignoring these differences is only adding fuel to the fire. In order for society to fully embrace different groups one must first understand that there are many factors contributing to racial identity, thus one just not solely rely on one aspect of a person. This view of “race” is that it makes it possible to understand the investments of often contested interests involved in takes account of leaning. Social learning regarding race, assisted by critical social thought, might well provide resources by which to move beyond racism to a socially productive pluralist democracy without an unnecessary abstract, reductionism individualism that promotes an amorphous universalism”(,peg 21).

Also racial differences are extremely important to humans; we like to relate to there people who are from the same area, look and believe in the same ideologies as we do (culture) and in result the elimination of this will be an elimination of centuries of histories. Preserving race preserves cultures and cultural achievements, especially in cultures in which that group’s history was tarnished (African-Americans). Cultures, languages and the arts will all be affected if there was an end to racial/ethnic identities.

Humans feel the need to be a part of groups, shared identities and ideas can serve as a basis of getting people to work towards the improvement of a group ND overall society. “The struggle against racism requires talking about race… Even If racism disappears, we should conserve race” (Class notes, 01. 30. 13). I totally agree with this quote, racism is based off ignorance and misunderstandings. Eliminating and refusing to talk about race merely because it makes people UN-easy is outrageous. As long as there is an human race, social and racial segregation will always exists.

And because this is something that will forever stay, conversing and formulating ideas to cease the tension between races will only bring people closer to understanding one another. Ignoring differences leads to more discrimination, which leads me to disagree with Pasha’s idea of racial eliminative. In a perfect society racial eliminative would prosper but because society is never flawless, the idea of racial eliminative is pure ignorance. Ignoring that there is a problem only creates bigger problems. “… N A coherent and socially viable way, multiple commitments to diverse and seemingly divergent principles that favor individuality without regard to race and/or ethnicity and also favor regard for ethnicity and race (or gender, or sexual orientation) is a most demanding task which, unfinished, adds to the potential explosiveness of the complexities and tensions of contemporary American social life” (Outlaw, peg. 18). Yes living in a color-blind society in which race nor color does not exist would be ideal but because of our histories of social institutions based upon racial segregation and discrimination, utopia is unreachable.

The formation of racial groupings and segregation will never disappear; because of this working towards a society where racism is acknowledged but not tolerated is key. Outlaws rebuttal of admitting the existence of racial differences and embracing them makes more sense to me. Personally, embracing what identifies me; Black, female is not a problem for me. Living in a world where I know there is much discrimination is better than being ignorant of the fact that I will more than often be discriminated or labeled based on my appearance.

Being prepared to tackle what ever comes my way is important. Ignoring the fact that this will not happen is ignorance within itself. So embracing my identities is a huge part of my life, only enforcing the idea of Outlaws statement of “culture proneness. “The challenge is to find ways to conserve revised understanding of race that is appropriately balanced between recognizing and valuing racial and ethnic cultural groupings and preserving the best achievements of modern Enlightenment’s and the political revolution of Liberalism” (APIPA 35).

Between the two (APIPA and Outlaw) cache’s goal is to end racial discrimination by any means necessary. Each author gives good arguments in what direction they would take to end this factor. They both have different approaches to race relations but in all, they both agree that though a color- Lind society would be ideal, color-consciousness is very much necessary.

Because of our social institutions (based on color with purpose to discriminate against minorities) achieving this would be remarkable. I believe Outlaws view on multiculturalism to be true,you can’t get much of a race concept,from any of these traditions; you can get various possible candidates from the referential notion of meaning, but none of them will be much good for explaining social or psychological life, and none of them corresponds to the social groups we consider races in America.

MLK: Religion and Racism

Martin Luther King, Jar. Is one of the most Intelligent minds and greatest leaders In United States history. HIS work as an activist Is what he Is most known for but his work as a philosopher and writer are equally as important. Among his works is the theological sermon “Pilgrimage to Nonviolence” which highlights his thoughts on different types of religion and how he views his own faith. King explains how his experiences as a persecuted people have changed his views on religion and even strengthened his beliefs.

Dry. Martin Luther King, in his sermon “Pilgrimage to Nonviolence”, comes to his philosophic conclusions because of his experiences with racism and injustice. Dry. Martin Luther King, Jar. Why “Dry. “? What Is he a doctor of and how did he receive such a title? In reality, King received his Ph. D. In systematic theology so his title of “Dry. ” fits. He knows just about every religious theory known to man and has tried almost every one of them for himself. But what If he Is not only a literal doctor, but also a figurative one? Doctors heal, fix, and reconstruct major parts of the human body.

Martin Luther King not only knew religion but also knew how to heal, fix, and reconstruct people’s major ways of thinking; how to bend their unwavering minds to accept the “new systems of justice and equality’ (MILK 96). In “Pilgrimage to Nonviolence” he leads the reader through a Journey of religious idealism, which help us understand his thoughts and philosophic approach to life. Fundamentalism is the beginning to King’s Journey and one of the oldest beliefs there are. It implies a fundamental belief that whatever is said, written, or phrased is true to it’s word. For example, the bible is taken literally by a fundamentalist

Christian. The pessimism towards human nature Is a large part of fundamentalism. Everyone Is born with original sin and must learn to accept It but only those who can accept It and overturn It’s evil for good are going to move on to the afterlife. Dry. King wants the truthfulness and faith of fundamentalism but wants to explore other options, which aren’t as strict and pessimistic. He believes in a much better religion, which offers a strong base faith, with unconditional positive regard but keeps intellect close at heart. He needs to know there is something out there that will help IM to find Justice and stability in the world.

King grew up knowing only fundamentalism and was taken aback by all the new information he received waking from his “dogmatic slumber” (90). Liberalism was one of the first other religious structures he experienced. It is much more optimistic for human nature than fundamentalism and Is an enlightened idealism. Everyone Is born good but learns to become evil and God Is Immanent within and out of all people. King was Intrigued by the optimism for good In all people and the power of reason but he feared Its sympathy for sin and lack of Justice for It.

He believes reasoning blocks sin out as a rationalization for good. This works with how people think towards others: with different; such as being a certain race makes you better or worse than someone else. King wanted to avoid these liberalism rationalizations because they are more inclined to create sin and produce more problems than they may fix. Because reason is “devoid of the purifying power of faith”, it cannot be set to one moralistic view but may be changed infinitely to suit ones needs and views at any time, making it almost impossible for King to preach his ideas without skepticism (91).

Neo-orthodoxy is the return to fundamentalism but with a slight hold on liberalism. It holds the pessimistic nature of fundamentalism but keeps the intellectual enlightenment of liberalism. King discusses his disappointment with neo-orthodoxy and how its pessimism is too evident to answer questions, which are more easily told through liberalism. It’s stress on a “God who was hidden” and away from everyone put more emphasis on finding evidence than having faith, which King felt was not a way to live (91). He thought it was too harsh on human nature and wanted more faith in unanimity power for good and love.

Without the support of love, he could never bring others to realize their injustices against people of other races. Therefore, neo- orthodoxy was not satisfying enough for Dry. King. Existentialism is separate from the other idealism. It is more geared towards Kings argument of race and equality. “Existence precedes essence” is the main argument and explains the importance of thinking with an open mind and treating all as if their essence doesn’t exist. All are free to choose who they are but there are consequences for your actions, finite redeem, and limits to what you can do and be.

He thought the ideals were good for his moral reasoning but felt it lacked the power of faith in that God does not have to exist in order to be an existentialist. A lack of faith or moral reasoning could result in the opposite of what King wants, which is a lack of love and support for all people and their differences. Martin Luther King believed in a nonviolent, loving way to reveal racial injustice as the evil that it is. He was confused about racial injustice and thought it was “rationally inexplicable and morally unjustifiable” (92).

He wanted the violent arms race in the racial wars to end and start a new war of pacifism. “The aftermath of hatred and bitterness that usually follows a violent campaign” would only ruin his attempt at peace among the races (94). His experiences with injustice molded his ideals for love and peace in a religious structure that is positive and reasoning, yet holds true to itself. Through all the idealism he analyzed combined with his experiences in racial injustice, “Dry. ” King made a prescription of fundamentalism that is intellectual but shows the good that all people are capable of.

He believes that questioning the world is okay but having faith in a personal God is Just as important and maintaining that faith is essential to keeping yourself out of the evil of rationalizing. His “personal God” shows that everyone’s perspective will be different on how they view religion but to have one that is right for you will strengthen your faith more (96). He wants everyone to have they’re own interpretations but still keep that fundamentalist structure as a solid base. His conclusions lead to an open-minded, intellectual, loving, and serene coexistence, which needs not be called coexistence, but rather existence.

Lesson Before Dying Racism

Black has always been portrayed as evil, whereas White has represented purity and light. These oversimplified stereotypes of something so abstract as skin color has plagued our culture with prejudice and hatred. Ernest E. Gaines, author of A Lesson Before Dying, tells the story of a young black boy named Jefferson who Is set to die for essentially being In the wrong place at the wrong time, and a schoolteacher who is faced with the task of making him a “man”. The novel takes place in Bayonne, Louisiana in the sass’s, a time when racism respired.

At this time in history people faced extreme prejudice based on the color of their skin. Though slavery had been abolished almost eighty years prior, the repercussions of the concept of an inferior race prevailed. Racism is arguable the biggest social issue in A Lesson Before Dying, and this racism holds down the Black people of Bayonne, and makes them believe that they are indeed inferior, and that nothing will change for them. Gaines portrays this racism through Grant’s struggles as a teacher, the way the Judiciary system treats Jefferson and through the colored people of Bayonets daily lives.

The novel takes place in the town of Bayonne, Louisiana in the sass’s, a horrible setting for African Americans. Grant assesses that there Is a “Catholic church uptown for Blacks, and a Catholic church downtown for Whites” (25). Though slavery has been outlawed, segregation Is still a major Issue for the people. Their facilities are inferior to those of the White people, and often times are completely decrepit. Additionally, the Black people of the town face prejudice in almost everything they do. When Grant went to deliver food to Jefferson, for instance, he sheriff searches the bags of food (70).

Grant Is only trying to perform a good deed by delivering the food, not to mention tutoring Jefferson, yet he is treated like a criminal. Additionally, Jefferson is not allowed utensils in the jail, and is forced to eat his meals like the “hog” the White people believe he is (70). This proves that not only do the White people believe he Is a “hog” or less than human; they believe he should be forced to act like an animal. Gaines reinforces this stereotype and the horrible way Blacks are treated by portraying White people in this way.

The education system In Bayonne was also far from ideal, and Gaines shows the injustices Black children face versus their white peers. The students are forced to get down on their knees to use the benches as desks or do their work in their laps (36). The students are so incredibly disadvantaged that they do not even have desks to write on to do their work, whereas the White children presumably have a well furnished school. This clear distinction between children’s’ learning environments shows Just how bad the racism In Bayonne truly was. They are merely Innocent children and they are already rated differently from their white peers.

Gaines describes Grant’s class to show readers the circumstances of the Black community in comparison to the White school district. Additionally, the school year, according to Grant Is only,” five months, and when the children are not needed In the fled” (36). Even though slavery had been abolished almost a century prior, the Black children were still deprived of a proper attempt to ration his supplies, because the school board does not give him an adequate amount for the year and at one point tells a child to put the chalk down for deed have to buy new supplies with his own money if he was to run out (36). Dry.

Joseph, the school superintendent, also only visits the Black children’s schools once a year, whereas he visits the White schools twice (53). When Doctor Joseph attempts to compliment Grant on his teaching style, he comments that Grant has “an excellent crop of students”, which again classifies the Black individuals as less than people (56). This could also be Doctor Joseph attempting to speak in a language Grant can relate to, the language of slavery, which is obviously innately racist and humiliating these vents and conversation, Gaines communicates that the education system is highly flawed in Bayonne, Louisiana.

Racism in Bayonne, however, goes far past everyday segregation and abuse of power. Foremost, in the trial of Jefferson, his court appointed lawyer chooses to portray him as a “hog” or a man unaware of his actions and implications of these actions. The lawyer suggests he would “Just as soon put a hog in the electric chair as this,” suggesting that Jefferson life has no more value than that of an animal. This serves to show the reader Just how horrible the racism is n Bayonne. The lawyer then argues that Jefferson is so ignorant that he is not even a human and “what Justice would there be to take his life” (5).

Rather than to argue that Jefferson is innocent, he decides to portray him as an animal, too stupid to recognize his own actions. Though the lawyer is obviously attempting to get him off, he only serves to humiliate Jefferson and the Black community. His futile attempts may have proved to be adequate if not for the fact that the Jury still did not listen and sentenced Jefferson to death for being Black. Even more than this, the Jury only notations twelve white men (2), who obviously do not provide an accurate sample for the town of Bayonne.

It is incredibly ironic that White people are to Judge the trial of a Black man who has been prosecuted because of other White people The legal system is designed to protect one’s rights and bring balance to a society, but in the novel, injustice lies within this system. A Lesson Before Dying personifies racism through the way White people speak to colored people and the unjust treatment bestowed upon them. Ernest E. Gaines wrote this novel in order to show the clear separation of rights between Black and White individuals.

Language and Racism

Marie There’s Maddox State Session number: (unknown) Name of School: SST Marry School Session: November 2014 Subject AL: Language and Literature Level: HAL Work Submitted: Written task 1 Title: Language and Racism Subtitle: How Is language used to describe racism? Supervisor: Mrs.. Mullein word count: 765 Submitted in partial fulfillment of the B Diploma [pal] humans. Language is form of knowledge it is used to communicate ideas and thoughts.

Language also uses symbols. Though language is good it is also bad. Language becomes a problem when people misuse and misunderstand it, this can cause dispute between people and this is the language of racism and may others were started and then misused by humans. Language has influenced human thoughts since the moment we learnt it. The question is words and phrases in English created to enlighten the thought blacks are “bad” and whites are “good”?

The answer is no it is up to the human mind to distinguish what is good or bad. It is true that negative language affects the mind of humans. This is scary because subconsciously one would sit back and look at the ways language has affected our lives and ideas from the first time we knew how to listen and speak it. If this is really true then we have no way of escaping the prejudice and racial bias in our society for the thoughts have run too deep.

Color Symbolism: They symbolism of white as positive and black as negative is pervasive in our culture. “Good guys” wear white hats and ride white horses, “bad guys” wear black hats and ride black horses. Angels are white and devils are black. The definition of black includes “without any moral light or goodness; evil, wicked, indicating disgrace, sinful,” while that of white includes “morally pure, spotless, innocent, free from evil.

Ethnocentrism or From a White Perspective: Implicit in the English usage of master/slave concept is ownership of the slave by the master; the captives (slaves) were African individuals with human worth, right and dignity and the term “slave” denounces that human quality, thereby making the mass rape of African women by white captors more acceptable in the minds of people and setting a mental frame of reference legitimizing the atrocities perpetuated against African people (adapted from Trio-County Domestic & Sexual Violence Intervention Network Ann-oppression Training for Trainers Created by Carol Cheney, Jeannie Liberace and Terrier Squinters, 2006. 503. 287. 9628 ext. 2. Www. Satisfaction. Org) Racism divides human beings into races which are distinguished by their physical characteristics, their cultural patterns and their modes and behavior. These characteristics are supposed to confirm to a type and to be inherited and unchanging. For example; when racist condemn blacks as lazy and fleshless people, he same people are said to be scared of black workers as a threat to Jobs which, they argue, should “belong” to white workers. Humankind “has sprung from one protoplasm”. What we believe from different racial backgrounds is usually learnt from our parents.

From a very early age we hear their opinions and accept them without asking questions. Peer pressure can sometimes lead people to make racist remarks, or even attacking someone Just to fit in with their friends. ” no one is born hating another person because of their skin color,or background, or his religion. People must learn to hate, and if they can learn to hate, they can be taught love, for love comes more naturally to the human heart than its opposite”-Nelson Mandela, from his autobiography,” long walk to freedom” Language can use racism casually. For example casual racism is much more subtle when a Joke is made and you are hurt by it. Some people can make Jokes and not know that it is a racist Joke.

Key Concept of Racism

RACE Race Is one of the most complex concepts In Sociology. It Is a social construct that artificially divides people into distinct groups based on characteristics such as physical appearance (particularly color), ancestral heritage, history, economic and political needs of a society at a given period of time. Science theories of race arose in the late 18th and early 19th century The father of modern racism, Count Joseph Arthur De Gobbling proposed the existence of three races: white (Caucasian), Black (Negroes) and Yellow (Mongolia).

According to his theory, blacks are least capable whereas white race possesses superior characteristics. In the year following World War 2, ‘race science’ has been discredited since they are no clear cut ‘races’ In Biology. RACISM The concept of race Is fundamental to the existence of racism-prejudice based on socially significant physical distinction (skin color or race).

A racist Is someone who believes that some individuals are superior or inferior to others due to basis reclaimed differences. More precisely, racism is a system of advantage based on race ND is supported by institutional structures, policies, actions of individuals, cultural norms, values and practices that creates and sustains advantages for the dominant group while systematically subordinating members of targeted racial groups.

In European countries, racism is visible as open or implicit hostility including: Routine negative stereotypes in the media and In the conversations and ‘common sense’ of the populations dominant group * Discrimination In employment and recruitment practices, and In workplace cultures and customs ; Language and hysterical attack on minorities in public * Minorities’ holy places are attacked and desecration of cemeteries. Bureaucratic delay and Inertia In responding to minorities requests for cultural sensitivity In education and healthcare; in planning applications for social and cult places; in language policies; and in regeneration and neighborhood renewal programs in areas where minorities live Racism can be subdivided Into Individual racism and Institutional racism, Institutional racism is a system of procedures and patterns in all walks of life. For example, there are education, housing, businesses, employment, professional associations, religion and media.

According to this view, institutions all promote policies that favor certain groups while discriminating against others. The effect of institutional racism is to perpetuate and maintain the power, influence and well- being of one group over another. For individual racism, it is the beliefs, attitudes and actions of an individual that support racism. Individual racism can occur at both conscious and unconscious levels. For example, telling a racist Joke, using a racial epithet Is occurrence of Individual racism. Individual racism can be further subdivided into active racism and passive racism. Active racism – Actions which 1 OFF oppression of those in targeted racial groups. They support the continued subjugation of members of targeted groups and protection of the rights’ of members of the advantaged group. * Passive racism – Conscious and unconscious beliefs, attitudes and actions that support the system of racism, racial prejudice, racial dominance and contribute to the maintenance of racism, without openly advocating violence and discrimination. Besides that, there are racism such as Internalized Racism and Horizontal Racism.

Internalized Racism happens when people from targeted racial groups believe, act on, or enforce the dominant system of beliefs about themselves and members of their own racial group. For example, they may use creams to lighten their skin, believing that the most competent administrators or leaders are white. They feel that they cannot be as intelligent as white people, believing that racism is the result of people of color not being able to raise themselves up ‘by their own bootstraps’. On the other hand, Horizontal racism occurs when people from targeted racial groups help the dominant system of racial discrimination and oppression.

It can happen between members of the same racial group (an Asian person telling another wearing a sari to ‘dress like an American’; a Latin telling another Latin to stop speaking Spanish) or between members of different, targeted racial groups (Latino believing stereotypes about Native Americans). Racism in Different Sociologists’ Views “Culturally sanctioned beliefs, which, regardless of intentions involved, defend the advantages whites have because of the subordinated position of racial minorities,” * David Hellman (1993) “… Highly organized system of ‘race’-based group privilege that operates at every level of society and is held together by a sophisticated ideology of color/’race’ supremacy. Racist systems include, but cannot be reduced to, racial bigotry,” * Noel Cozenage and Darlene Olivarez Madders “United States can be characterized as a “total racist society” because racism is used to organize every social institution…. ” * Sociologist and former American Sociological Association president Joe Fagin