Japanese and American Racism during World War II

When most people think about World War II, their thoughts go straight to the European front with concentration camps, Doll Hitter’s regime, and Nazi racism of Jews. Millions of people died as a result of this profound racism, which caused this to be the most devastating war In history. What people tend to forget, though, is that racism existed not only In Europe, but in the Pacific front as well. John Dower wrote a historical text portraying the impudent behaviors of racial stereotyping in the countries of Japan and the united States.

For example, Japan referred to Americans as “demons” and the U. S. Referred to Japanese as “vermin. ” Fueled by this tension, battles on the Pacific front greatly contributed to the overall number of casualties during World War II, thus making racism a very Important factor. In Dowers monograph, War Without Mercy, brutality of racism In WI was demonstrated through the different ways Japanese and Americans stereotyped one another through the dehumidifying terms of “demons” and “vermin. ” Dower thoroughly described in his text how the Japanese viewed themselves.

The historical and radiologists culture that they had did indeed spark much of the racism they possessed against Americans. The people of Japan used spirituality, unfamiliarity’s, samurai culture, and cultural restoration to boost themselves, while also using It to degrade other races. Japanese spirituality was extremely important to them. It tied into ideas of purity that made them unique individuals. unfamiliarity’s said that they all originated from one sun goddess that began the Yamaha race. The Japanese saw this as being biologically innate, and it could not be learned or cultivated by anyone else.

This superiority made them believe that those who would never understand would need to be killed. The samurai culture they lived by said that they descended from the greatest warriors. They used this tradition to build themselves up, and to Invoke the duty and honor of dying for your country. They believed that moral and spiritual purity could be attained by cleansing their blood and dying for their country. One of the biggest motivations the Japanese had for fighting was that they wanted to achieve cultural restoration by becoming the greatest world power.

They believed that they belonged at the top of the hierarchy, or they were superior and special in a way that no one else could relate to. The racism against Americans began when their values started clashing. Demutualization is a form of propaganda that draws on racial stereotypes. The Japanese saw Americans as selfish, greedy, and superficial people. They used an old tradition of a demonic creature with horns and applied it to Americans. The Japanese feelings of anger and hostility towards the demonic “other” increased as the tension in the war grew.

Dower states, “Depiction of the enemy as demons or beasts or simply escapable people who had to be destroyed began to appear In various forms as on the issue of American segregation as a key factor in why they believed citizens of the United States were “demonic. ” Segregation with Native Americans and African Americans in the U. S. Was portrayed as something that divided the nation. It was also seen as hypocritical because of Japanese-American internment camps that existed while they were also against Nazi racism towards the Jewish.

The Japanese could not relate to such racial hypocrisy and were in disbelief of how Americans could treat their citizens that way. This only led to the increase in viewing citizens of the U. S. As “demons. ” The Japanese created many different forms of propaganda with the unifying theme of the “demonic other. ” One magazine entry in the text states, “It has gradually become clear that the American enemy, driven by its ambition to conquer the world, is coming to attack us… Our ancestors called them Abuse or savages long ago, and labeled the very first Westerners who came to our country the Southern Barbarians,” (Dower, 247).

They had the opinion that all Americans wanted to do was kill and to be on top of the hierarchy. The Japanese believed that they had to respond to such an evil threat, “By extermination. ‘Beat and kill these animals that have lost their human nature! ” (Dower, 274). The idea of “extermination” was fed into the minds of those in the military so that they had the motivation to kill. They put Americans on the level of demons so they did not feel like they were killing a human. The propaganda that was exhibited in Japan was also fed to the civilians in a way that they felt racially superior to everyone else.

They saw themselves as descendants of the divine, and that they came from the best warriors. These things kept the Japanese morale going. While the Japanese used the “demonic other” to brutally euthanize and racially stereotype Americans, the U. S. Euthanized the Japanese by using a different term. The U. S. Referred to them as “vermin,” “cockroaches,” and “apes,” which literally portrayed them as being sub-human. The text states, “At the simplest level, they Euthanized the Japanese and enlarged the chasm between ‘us’ and them’ to the point where it was perceived to be virtually unbridgeable,” (Dower, 82).

This quote showed them as being virtually not human at all. When people are not referred to as being human, it makes it a lot easier to kill. The only way Americans felt they could deal with the Japanese was by eradicating them. The term “extermination” Euthanized them because it is a term that refers to killing vermin, not people. Preceding the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, the U. S. Saw all of the Japanese as being sub-human and weak. “… Most Westerners found it difficult to take the Japanese seriously. They were obviously causing great destruction in China…

But militarily they also seemed to be performing less than impressively… Enable to finish off [China], a poorly equipped and poorly trained foe,” (Dower, 98). Due to these reasons, the United States saw Japan as a weak nation that had poor intentions and capabilities. They were soon shocked once the devastating attack on Pearl Harbor occurred. All of these sub-human stereotypes were then spun around to show Japan as being super-human, but in a negative way. Everything that the Japanese were proud of, like spirituality, military victories, and culture, were all turned into negative things by Americans.

The U. S. Tried to prove that the Japanese were biologically inferior with science, and that they behaved like apes. Propaganda throughout the Japan after Pearl Harbor made a complete turn-around, but the new ideas were Just as racist as the old ones. No matter what the Japanese did during the war, the United States still considered them as anything but human. These viewpoints were very important to the men in the U. S. Army. By constantly dehumidifying the Japanese, it made fighting and killing them easier. The American citizens were also being fed propaganda that would keep them in support of the war.

By the citizens supporting he war effort, they supported all of the soldiers in battle, thus making it easer for the men to fight the Japanese. Racial stereotyping was one of the main reasons World War II was so brutal. It was present on both the European and Pacific fronts, and created harsh feelings toward opposing sides. The Japanese and American racism alone caused immense numbers of casualties. Dower’s historical monograph, War Without Mercy, demonstrates how brutal racism was between Japan and the United States. Both countries racially stereotyped one another in different ways, but both used the method of dehumidifying the enemy.

Racism a Permanent Feature of American Society?

Derrick Bell believes that prospects for achieving racial equality in the united states are “illusory for blacks, while Dennis Dugout’s believes that the discriminatory effects of racism has substantially eroded within the American society and that lagging progress among blacks Is due to factors such as culture, rather than racism. Some may side with Bell and his theory but I side with Odious_ As I read Bell’s argument, I connected to some valid points it came off as too extreme while Doodad’s argument really struck a chord with me.

Dugout’s made a Lear point that the overall success of blacks is not contingent on racial discrimination but on the culture that we as a race have built. In simpler terms, racism Is not an excuse. As harsh as that sounds, It Is the truth. He states that even If racism were to disappear overnight, the worst problems facing black America would persist.

Single parenthood, welfare dependency among the black underclass would not cease. Drugs and AIDS would still ravage the African American community, as well as black on black crime. As I continued to read, it was a bit heartbreaking cause it is the truth, and my only question is that well if we know the problem why can’t we fix it? Or why isn’t this being addressed as It should and Dugout’s simply says it Is our doing.

He pulls Information from African American scholars Jeff Howard and Ray Hammond that argues that If blacks as a group can show that they are capable of performing competitively in schools and the work force, and exercising both the rights and the responsibilities of American citizenship then racism will be deprived of its foundation in experience. If blacks can close the civilization gap, the race problem in this country is likely to become insignificant. He goes on to talk about Rethinking Relativism and that because of that confronting the black cultural pathology Is “blaming the victim”.

Also that modern liberals are well aware of the differences in academics, economics, family and crime in the blacks and other groups and since these differences exist on all economic levels then an explanation for it must lie under these three things: genes, culture, and racial discrimination. And the roof differences of black and other must the product of discrimination or genes and whites on various measures of performance, then the conclusion cannot be escaped: according to the liberal paradigm, blacks must be genetically inferior.

I believe that this was included as way to point out how liberal are somewhat doing a runaround when it comes to confronting the real issues. His previous point segues into the liberal project that begins to offer an elaborate and shifting rationale for blacks incapacity. If African Americans don’t do well on tests that it’s because the tests are eased and because white society has deprived them of the necessary skills. If they have dropped out of school then it due to them being driven out by racism.

The list goes on. Dugout’s would love for all the social issues to be eradicated, Just like most individuals but he stresses that our (African Americans) fix for it is through a cultural reconstruction in which society plays a supporting role but which is carried out primarily by African Americans themselves. I don’t know if the term “the end of racism” will ever be established but I am hopeful for it even if it occurs after my existence.

Is Racism and Anti-Semitism Still Exist Today?

Is Racism and Ant-Semitism Still a Problem In the United States? Joyce Chandler PHI 103 Informal to Logic Instructor Riviera July 15, 2013 In today society, there Is a question set forth “Is racism and anti-Semitism still a problem in the united State? Racism is defined as a belief among the various human races in cultural, background or individual achievement that one’s own race is superior and has the right to rule others. However anti-Semitism is defined as a special kind of hatred, dislike, or abuse that Is directed especially towards Jews cause of their religious belief.

Racism and anta;Smelts have both plagued the world for centuries causing intense and violent acts to occur throughout the world. Over the years, racism and anti-Semitism are revolting forms of prejudice that have disrupted lives, ruined religious communities and complicate relation between countries. Since the 21st century many Jews and many other countless victims have been attacked or injured. Many of these attacks are referred to as bullying. Greenberg states, “Many people do not and will not report incidents of religious or call bias. According to Bender a psychologist at Criminal Behavior and Mental Health (COMB) states, we have a tendency to avoid all forms of bullying no matter If It is a community or workplace. As the disease of hatred continue globally several sources from all around the world are being affected. First, traditional ant-Jewish prejudice has pervaded Europe and other parts of world controlling governments, the media, International business, and the financial world. Secondly, retaliation on those who crosses the line of objecting or opposing polices, and anti-Semitism.

Thirdly, stopping all population developments in the foreign countries, and finally disapproval of both the United States and globalization that spills over to Israel, and to the Jews who identified with both. Sparks begin to continue as the United States government begin monitoring and combating racism and anti-Semitism throughout the world as an important human rights and religious freedom issues. President Bush signed the Global Anti-Semitism Review Act on October 1 6, 2004. “Defending freedom also means disrupting the evil of 2010).

A speech was given by Bush condoning racism and anti-Smelts and all of Its opponents. Bush called this a force of violence that will no longer will be tolerate rated. In 2011, the Beam’s administration boycotted in its 10th year commemoration because of the “ugly displays of intolerance and anti-Semitism. ” (Labor, 2011 ) President Obama promised, “To chip away at Israel’s legitimacy would only be met by the unshakeable opposition of the united States” He explained ways he would chip away at this unruly evil.

On the rise of racism and anti-Semitism, the secretary of state Colonel Powell addressed these issues stating, “We must not permit anti-Semitic crimes to be shrugged off as inevitable side effect of inter-ethnic conflicts (Labor, 2011 Building on success and achievement, the Department of State Is hastening Its efforts with Its partners globally to improve both observing and opposing racism and anti-Semitism 1 OFF education curricula and teacher training programs. Encouraging demarcates and national leaders to speak out against anti-Semitism.

The United States supports the work of Nags in giving successful seminars that teach respect for individuals and minority groups. The root of anti-Semitism runs deep and the United States does not underestimate the struggle of reversing the recent renaissance of this ancient menace (Brownfield, 1987). There are incidents from Europe, Eurasia, Middle East and other regions that many governments became increasingly aware of the threat presented by racism and anti-Semitism and spoke out against it.

The United States kook effective measures to combat it with several countries as well. Conclusion Anti-Semitism is a widely dispersed problem in many regions, although the severity and abuses varied among individual countries. It will continues to escalate unless the government pushes back against these phenomena of racism and Anti- Semitism. Although in today’s society many are touched by these harsh experiences of racism and anti-Semitism, it is a global problem that requires a coordinated multinational approach. References: Bender, Doris, Lose, Frederica.

Is Racism a prominent feature in the African American

Jaycees Is Racism a Permanent Feature of American Society? Throughout Slavery (1619-1865), Americans faced prejudice, segregation and racism. In today’s world, we as African Americans still face prejudice due to the mere color of our skin, segregation due to how we communicate with each other and racism because of our painful history. Racism can be defined as a prejudice, discrimination, or antagonism directed against someone of a different race based on the belief that one’s own race is superior.

In this case, the antagonistic race who lives that their race Is superior would be whites and the race being discriminated against, Is the black race. But is this so though? Are blacks still being preyed on today as In our past? Derrick Bell, a prominent African-American Professor of Harvard Law School, believed that “the prospects for cleaving racial equality in the united States are “illusory’ for blacks”. Bell argues that “few whites are able to identify with blacks as a group” and tend to view them through “comforting stereotypes”.

This maybe so, Derrick Bell has supporting evidence and good reason to believe that blacks will never e equal to whites. However Dines Dugout’s of the American Enterprise Institute begs to differ. Dines Odious believes that there are three things that can cause segregation; whether it is culture, genes or discrimination. He rejects the liberal views which states that black failure is due to discrimination or that it is due to genes. He believes that blacks have developed a culture which represents an adaptation to historical circumstances which In today’s world Is dysfunctional.

Both arguments are solid but which one answers the question of racism being a permanent feature of the American Society? If we approach the situation from Derrick Bell’s point of view, we can understand that there Is some logic from where he stands. Derrick Bell gave examples of how racism was when he was growing up and compared it to the racism in today’s society and also that will be in the future. One example Derrick Bell gave was that when he was growing up, the African American Slavery heritage was more a symbol of shame than a source of pride.

It burdened black people with an indelible mark of difference as they struggled to be like whites. This more or less still happens in today’s society especially in black communities. Blacks who were raised in a purely black community struggle with the history of their family and have difficulties accepting whites into their lives. They carry the scars of slavery that were passed on from generation to generation. Their frame of mind dictates whites as being evil, unjust, racist people.

These blacks believe that whites care nothing about their race and that they are there to tear them down when they try to be successful. This scenario reflects more or less what it was like in the days of segregation and be more integrated with blacks and Just accept blacks for who they re and not Judge them by their skin color. Obviously in today’s society we are not integrated as much as we should because we still have purely white schools and purely black schools in America.

The government is still very much biased or racist against blacks because even to invest in something as essential as education, white schools are invested in far more than in black schools. Dines Dugout’s argues that this is because blacks are busy blaming whites as being racists for not providing the material needed for them to excel in their studies, which is why the government does to see the need to invest in people who will not contribute positively to the building up of our society. It is as a result of lack of investment and hope that Derrick Bell argues that the unemployment rate for blacks is 2. Times the rate for whites. Blacks per-capital income is not even two thirds of the income for whites. With all of this being said I do stand firmly with Dines Dugout’s point of view that blacks have developed a culture and a set mind frame which blames every black failure on white racism. Racism still exists in our modern society but the level of schism is nowhere as close to the level it was at in slavery or in the period of the civil rights movement. The level of racism that we experience is somewhat slight in comparison to what it was before.

African Americans are affected when banks are reluctant to invest in their dreams, pedestrians are treated as security risks especially when certain garments are worn, and the most famous racist act is the non-investment in black neighborhoods. I do believe that some of these actions are brought on by how the black community portray themselves. For example, banks and institutions fail to invest in black communities due to the fact that in these communities, people have the mindset that there is no way out of this “life”. I cannot do anything with my life apart from what I am doing currently’, which normally is either drugs or an honest low paying Job. We all know that education is the key to life. If we all, as African Americans, could suppress our feelings of white people being the source of all evil and blaming them for everything, then we could work with what we have as a group and prove to the white community that we deserve more attention and we are worthy of being invested in. Why is it that some African Americans can rise above their racist belief and do well in a white community but the majority can’t?

Aren’t we tired of being called the “minority’ group? We are stilled called the minority group because most of our black girls and boys are not being taught that yes white people are to be blamed for our scars that we carry as a burden of what our ancestors went through, but it should be with these scars should we prove to the whites that we were created as equals. That should be our goal. Instead, we created a culture that dictates we cannot be better than the generations before. As a result of this culture, white people feel the need to continue to treat us accordingly.

Dines Dugout’s also made another valid point stating that racism does not explain the main cause of black on black crime. The typical African American would blame whites for young men and women of our society for being in the streets because white racism drove them out of school and on to the streets. We say white racism is to be blamed for blacks having illegitimate children and this is because the white community failed to provide black males with steady Jobs. These things happen because a large whatever we envision for ourselves.

Everyone wants a big house, fancy car, successful career, but we do not put in the blood, sweat and tears to get there. We blame racism for the crimes that our blacks as a whole commit. We then try to Justify it by saying our “brothers” were pressured into committing these crimes due to economic hardship. Racism is not the sole reason for these events happening in today’s society. It is Just sad that because there is such a large number of African Americans promoting this new “black culture”, that the actual successful black Americans are Ewing stereotyped into that group as well.

Hence the reasons why African Americans still face slight racism even when they are extremely successful. If we compare what African Americans go through now in comparison to what our ancestors used to go through during the civil rights movement, we would realize that we have come a long way. An activist and leader of the African American Civil Rights Movement, Martin Luther King Jar. Shouted to the African American nation of 1963, “l have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and realize that all men were created equal; that one ay we will not be Judged by the color of our skin but by the contents of our characteristics”.

His dream became a reality over time. This is why I do not believe that racism is a permanent feature of American Society, because America has come such a far way from the days of slavery to the civil rights movement and from the civil rights movement to where we are now. We now have a Black President serving his second term, and a white Vice President. That is the highest level of integration; a white and a black man working together on improving the working and living notations of everyone in today’s society.

That was Just a vision 50 years ago and wasn’t even a thought in the days of slavery. African Americans do have every right not to forgive the whites for burdening us with such a painful history, but it is because of our rich history should we press forward and prove to the white nation that we are Just as smart and competent as they are. I do believe that one day racism will completely be abolished everywhere but the “black culture” has to be abolished first before the abolition of racism can be discussed or before the nation can move to the “end of racism”.

Is Racism a Permeanent Feature of American Society

In the article, Is Racism a Permanent Feature of American Society? , Derrick Bell and Dines Dugout’s descriptively express their views on the question proposed. Derrick bell is a scholar and authority on civil rights and constitutional law. Dines D’ Souza is also a scholar at the American Enterprise Institute. Both do agree that Yes racism still exist In America yet have different positions on whether or not racism has an effect on how the progression of African Americans appear today compared to how hinges used to be when blacks had to literally fight for necessary progression.

Bell simply poses the issue that America is the land of opportunity with a metaphoric Hollywood sign, welcoming minds to have equality but in reality it is slightly false advertisement. D’ Souza proposes that no matter what color one is, black or white, the same luxurious platter of success is presented; however, it is up to the Individual to necessarily choose to eat from It to become successful and have the American dream.

While reading this article It was undeniable to side with Dugout’s and includes that racism does exist however it is not and definitely should not be used as the reason why blacks (African Americans) today purposely or mistakenly fail in this society. Everything in this society is placed in front of oneself in various sources to create a guide of survival. There should be no one blunt reason to use the past to hold someone back from future endeavors. How many reasons can one find to say why a Job or career denied their services?

A million and one. “Even If racism were to disappear overnight, the worst problems facing black America would persist” (Odious, 183). Racism can never be mentioned gain and the struggles, as they call it, will still be in existence and will continue on to be there. Racism would probably be the last accusation of failure in the black community. Bell expressed that racism is embedded into blacks brains to make them believe that once one has failed It can be almost Impossible to start over and try again.

Yet Odious gave examples like “Colon Powell, who three decades ago could not be served a hamburger In many southern restaurants, became chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (Odious, 1821′ a man that was pushed in the dirt but dusts himself off and tried again. On another note, whites had a lot of hardships as well. For example, the event of the Holocaust, where Jewish people (whites) were sent to force labor or murdered as similar as slavery did. Whites do not use past impediments as crunches to Justify their failures.

They do not make It visible that misfortune can be a reason of defeat. Whites place obstacles from the past as history and, for the most part, move on from them and make a better person out of themselves. It is the culture that makes success a great or bad accomplishment. With whites, it was always praised upon when a child does well in grade school and proceeded on to college. In black neighborhoods one can be looked at as a “sell out” because one chose success over family.

It will be assumed that one will forget about everybody else when becoming unemployment, and income, the slow advances African Americans made during the sass and sass have definitely been reversed” (Bell, 175). This data can be true but life is filled with choices. Everyone has an option to finish school or to drop out and work. No person, in this day, is forced to do anything one does not want to do. Both whites and blacks experience poverty and unemployment. Blacks have to learn that success is only a one man show.

It is like a cross country race, where there is more than Just one person running for the team but in the end only one winner. It is not a group effort. Maybe it was in Africa when it took a tribe to stick together to keep everyone from being attacked or live from starvation; but in America, in this day, it is every man for himself. The question is proposed, Is racism a permanent feature of American society? No. Racism need to be set aside to broadcast the real problems in America that is making black and whites feel like there are different standards on how to become successful (Dugout’s, 188).

America is supposed to be the land that sees no color. It is supposed to be the land of equality, which it is. America has given many other race a chance to migrate here and become the best that can be, which was better than what they could be in their own birth country. Blacks did come to America unwillingly at first but there is plenty of opportunity for those, who think “the man” is holding them back, to migrate back to Africa where their ancestry is to be successful there. The blacks that are making a difference can continue on becoming doctor, layers, our greatest influencing actors, even mothers and fathers.

If they can put the issue of racism or any other black issues in America aside to be like whites to have a fortune to collect or a story to leave behind then anybody else can do it too. As Dines Dugout’s stated, “The black problem can be solved only through a program of cultural reconstruction in which society plays a supporting role, but which is carried out primarily by African Americans themselves” (Dugout’s, 188-89). It is going to take us as individual to make something out of ourselves. Yes, it is placed in front of us to make lemonade out of lemons but it will not be directed instruction by instruction.

Is Racism a Permanent Feature of American Society?

Racism a Permanent Feature of American Society? Racism is a Permanent Feature of American Society. Racism has been around since the asses. If you look at Ancient Greece-Roman slavery, you will see that they enslaved other Caucasians. Even the African slave trade was driven by West African Kingdoms. Racism is going to be around for a long time. Racism is not all about the race of someone. It can also be classified as not accepting someone who is handicap, obesity, the way people dress or there gender.

Everyone has some kind of prejudice. People also discriminate other people by what their beliefs are. Racism is still around after all these years. If it has not died out by now what makes you think it wont be a permanent feature of American society? On August 18, 2011 a guy by the name of Kevin Benton said that during his sophomore year In college, white students harassed him. He was one of the only other African American living on the floor in his dorm that was being tormented. They spat on their doors, tore their posters off the wall, and banged on their door at four in the morning.

The white students kept doing this trying to get them to move out. So Instead of him fighting back, one day during the dorm meeting he brought it up and all the rest of the kids did not say anything they just sat there and stayed quiet. As you can see this guy was being harassed and told the people over the dorm, which were more likely to be white, and they did not do anything about It. On September 1 1, ten years ago, the Twin Towers were knocked down by Muslims. Now more people, then before this happened, really did not like them.

What happened that day affected everyone who Is American, but It is not fair to continue to reportage hate and distrust of a group of people who may share some commonalities with a group of people who did something terrible. While Americans ask why something so terrible happened to them, why they were attacked, why they were singled out and hurt in ways that the country is still recovering from, they forgot something. They forgot that the hatred of the Muslim people as a whole Is not justified. To be honest, now that I am writing this paper I now understand you cannot judge everyone by their cover.

Get to know them and then judge them. All white people are not friendly, but some are. Even poor white people have tended to support Institutions such as slavery and segregation rather than coalescing with the black to fight against common social disadvantages such as unemployment and poverty. Most of these poor white people had a chance to be stuck up Just like the rest of them they Just choose the wrong path. There will always be racism In American society, until someone actually get rid of these dumb laws. OFF movement with a commitment to extreme violence to achieve its goals of racial segregation and white supremacy. More than 40 different Klan groups exist, There re over a hundred different Klan chapters around the country, with a combined strength of members and associates that may total around 5,000. The UK Klux Klan first emerged following the Civil War as America’s first true terrorist group. At first, the UK Klux Klan focused its anger and violence on African-Americans, on white Americans who stood up for them, and against the federal government which supported their rights.

Times of rapid social change, added more categories to its enemies list, including Jews, Catholics (less so after the asses), homosexuals, and different groups of immigrants. The UK Klux Klan was overshadowed in the late asses and early asses by growing neo-Nazi activity; however, by 2005 neo-Nazi groups had fallen on hard times, with many groups collapsing or fragmenting. This collapse has helped create a rise of racist skinhead activity, but has also provided new opportunities for Klan groups.

In addition, in the early asses, many communities in the United States began to experiences a significant influx of immigrants, especially Hispanics, for the first time in their histories. A single-issue movement opposing immigration has helped create fear and anxiety about immigration in the minds of any Americans. Many UK Klux Klan groups have attempted to take advantage of that fear and uncertainty, using anti-immigration sentiments for recruitment and propaganda purposes, and to attract publicity.

Some true facts about racism are black youths arrested for drug possession are 48 times more likely to wind up in prison than white youths arrested for the same crime under the same circumstances. Black and Latino men are three times more likely than white men to be stopped by the police and have their cars searched – even though white men are four times more likely to have weapons or drugs. White en with a criminal record are more likely to be called back for a Job interview than black men with no record, even when their education and experience are the same.

Students of color are far less likely to be put in honors courses even after you take test scores and grades into account. Students of color are more than twice as likely to be suspended or expelled from school even though they are not much more likely to break school rules than whites. So now you see my supporting facts that racism is a permanent feature of American society. Its will always be around. No matter what people tell there children or teachers tell there students.

“Is Racism a Permanent Feature of American Society?

The whites controlled the blacks years ago and today In some parts of America it Is still happening. Racism had split today’s society Into two parts. One side Is the blacks and the other side Is the whites. If you are not African American or Caucasian, then whatever the color of your skin is, that determined what side you was placed on. Some say that in the twenty-first century, racism is still in Americans Society. Those people are totally right, but the question is will racism be a permanent feature of Americans society.

After reading Dines Doodad’s response to the previous question, there is more than enough evidence to say that racism will not be a permanent feature in America’s society. Black people do crime and white people see it on television. White people do everything and anything that they can to keep blacks out of sight. If that’s following a black man around the store, or not hiring any black people to work for the whites, but a white person Is always going to think twice about associating with blacks. A black man walks Into a shoe and he Is followed all around he store by a white man.

The white man Is not too close the black man but he Is close enough that the black man knows that he Is getting followed. All the way until the black man gets to the register and pays for his items. Then the white man says to the black man, “Have a nice day and come back soon. ” The first thing that this black man thinks is that the white man was a racists person. But he was unaware about the other black man that came in before him that stole five pairs of shoes, and Just walked right out the front door without paying. The only reason the white man was allowing the black man was because he did not want to get robbed again.

The black man did not know that, so that’s why he felt as though the white man was racists. All whites are not racist but It’s Just the bad things that some blacks do that hurt the whole race. A black lady comes to an Interview to be a greeter at a restaurant. She has all the certification and experience that Is need for the job. She answered all the questions correctly and gave great reasons why she should be hired. But for some reason she does not get the Job and they tell her that she needs more work before hey hire her. She feels that the company is being racist because she is a black woman.

What she doesn’t know is that a black women before her got that same position and almost got their business shut down. The company made an agreement that no more black would be allowed to work in that company. The black women had everything that she need for the Job but because of the black lady before, she was not hired. That is another example of how some black people mess things up for the whole race and because of that blacks call white people racist. Derrick Bell lives that because the whites are in control of the education, they make It too hard for blacks to pass.

Well black families are way deferent than white families, and they also have different beliefs. Some white families push their kids to do good and set high standards for them to reach. On the other hand, some black families Just make sure their kids are making average grades and they are not being bad in the black kids are Just barley pass their classes. When open house comes alone and the black parents find out that their child is not doing well in school, the first thing he black parents say is their child’s teacher is racist and the teacher is giving their child bad grades.

But the whole situation is the difference between how black children are raised and how white children are raised. That does not have anything to do with any kind of racism. According to Dugout’s it is Just as excuses to not have to deal with the situation. To sum it up, racism is not a permanent feature of American society. Some blacks will tell you that it is but, those are the same blacks that make it hard for white people to trust them. Racism was very big at some point UT after it died down, it all came to what race was going to rise to the top.

The whites did their Job and now because of they have biggest business in the United States. Black people are not determined to do a lot of different things. They Just want everything to fall in their laps or they want someone else to do things they want for them. If some people didn’t mess it up for the whole race then we could be at the top of businesses and have our faces on build boards, but that chance was messed up long time ago. Racism does not have to continue in today’s society.

Institutional Racism and Racial Discrimination in the U.S.

Racism and Racial Discrimination In the U. S. Health Care System Institutional racism and racial discrimination In the U. S. Health care system has been part of a long continuum dating back over 400 years. After hundreds of years of active discrimination, efforts were made to admit minorities into the “mainstream” health system but these efforts were flawed.

Colon Gordon in his book Dead on Arrival portrays a very strong stance towards this issue when he states, “The American alfalfa state has always been, at root, a Jim Crow welfare state – disdainful of citizenship claims of racial minorities, deferential to a southern-controlled Congress, and leery of the racial implications of universal social programs” (172). It is evident that throughout the history of U. S. Health care that race has shaped health provisions in a number of ways, most noticeably In private and public health care Institutions.

Gordon throughout his books discusses the ways In which Institutional racism, specifically In the field of healthcare, has manifested Itself throughout history. One of the most prominent manifestations of Institutional racism In the healthcare field comes to light when examining past (and sometimes present) policies regarding admission (to healthcare facilities) and discrimination of minorities. It is evident when observing the adoption, administration, and implementation of these policies in the past that they were purposefully constructed to be exclusive of minority citizens (specifically African Americans and Latino).

Gordon gives an example of such policies in 1939 under the Social Security reforms. In the formative years of the New Deal southerners in Congress pushed for and won for the exclusion of agricultural and domestic labor from coverage under the National Recovery, Agricultural Adjustment, Social Security, National Labor Relations, and Fair Labor Standards act, this affectively excluded 90 percent of the southern black workforce (185).

The Implications of this act of agricultural exclusion are most clearly evident In the South and southwest-?regions whose economies were dominated by agriculture, who agriculture systems were peculiarly labor intensive, and whose agricultural labor markets were organized around low wages, tenancy, harsh legal controls, and lenience.

Gordon argues that segregation persisted in medicine and hospitals longer than in any other public institution or facility partly due to the fact that Southern Congressmen pushed for local control of any federal expenditure; and later on this pushed Southern and Southwestern leaders into a partnership with doctors, employers, and insurers to keep racial minorities excluded from the health system.

Southern Interests led to a push for Job-based private Insurance, locally administered subsidies for hospital construction, and penurious charitable programs for those left Enid, “southerners persistently worked to exclude African Americans from coverage, tap Into federal funds without sacrificial local practices, and ensure that charity programs remained under local control” (174).

Employment-based benefits, the majority of African Americans and Latino due to the fact that they were grossly underrepresented in the unionized industrial economy, and in part because benefits such as these did not extend to casual or domestic or agricultural workers. Private health benefits came to be looked upon by many Americans as a “wage of white- news” (176).

Federal agencies, both out of practical and political necessity, consistently surrendered control over federal funds and standards over to state and local administration, “states set their own standards for care and eligibility and controlled the pace and scope of federal matching funds. Local political and medical authorities wielded considerable informal power and discretion” (187). In 1948 the Brooking Institution published a book-length assault on health reform.

The conclusion of this publication was that higher black mortality rates are “predominately the result of economic, cultural and social differences” although, the search for this publication based cost estimates off of the ordinary expenditures of white families and confined comparative mortality rates to the white population, this led to them to conclude that the United States was among one of the most healthful nations in the world (188).

Seconding this conclusion and also asserting that higher rates of non-white mortality were due to such things as poor sanitation, housing, education, and the lack of ordinary individual and community common sense was the AMA. The partnership between these two organizations is evident. At the root of the capital issue in the South was not only professional and patient segregation but also the way in which it was countenanced by federal efforts to address the region’s dearth of facilities.

What is shown here is the long-standing political strategy to try and appease reformers by granting federal funds but to simultaneously placate opponents by relinquishing control to local or private interests; federal aid to hospitals both in 1940 and under the 1946 Hill-Burton Act “avoided any commitment to maintenance: once built, hospitals would reflect local control and local custom” (193). This however did nothing to prevent segregation seeing as in order to be considered nondiscriminatory a hospital was only required to grant equal access to the portion of the hospital that was built with federal funds.

Perhaps the most compelling public health issue during the formative years of the American welfare state was the dismal status of rural services. In places in the South and Southwest and the nation’s inner cities basic services such as a hospital, public health clinic, and a doctor accepting Medicaid patients did not even exist. Gordon offers the example in Mississippi in 1948, there were only five general hospital beds for every 100,000 blacks in the state-?at a time when four beds for every 1,000 citizens was considered adequate (175).

It is evident that health care in the twentieth century has been shaped by a myriad of “direct and indirect discrimination, strong southern interests and local administration, the uneasy intersection of public and private Bob- based) benefits, and the sharp political distinctions routinely drawn between contributory and charitable programs” (209). According to the U. S. Commission on Civil Rights, “Despite the existence of civil rights legislation equal treatment and equal access are not a reality for racial/ethnic minorities and women in the current climate of the health care industry.

Many barriers limit both the quality of health care and utilization for these groups, including discrimination. ” Access to comprehensive, quality health care services is important for the achievement of health equity and for increasing the quality of a healthy life for everyone. Access to health services entails the timely utilization of personal health services in an effort to achieve the best possible health outcomes. The utilization of and access to health care has many substantial impacts on a person’s life.

A person’s overall physical, social and mental health statuses are all impacted by the ability to be examined and treated by a medical professional. Health care also plays a significant role in the prevention of disease and disability, the detection and treatment of health conditions and a person’s quality of life. A structured healthcare system assists in providing a foundation for a healthy lifestyle for both individuals and their families. Without access to healthcare, minor health issues have the potential to escalate either permanently affecting living standards or worse resulting in death.

The health care sector also has an impact on the local economy. Health care facilities such as hospitals and nursing homes provide Jobs and income to people in the community. As these employees spend their income in the community, a ripple spreads throughout the economy, creating additional Jobs and income in other economic sectors. Also, providing healthcare may also be a business incentive to companies. Healthy employees can mean a healthier, happier, more productive workplace.

A company’s decision to invest in and offer health care to their employees not only filters back into the economy but also may help them to recruit and retain quality employees, improve employee satisfaction, and reduce absenteeism due to sickness. Business that offer health insurance as part of their employee benefits package are probably better able to attract more qualified applicants than those who don’t. Also, offering health insurance coverage is a way of keeping operating costs low, because employees are generally more apt to take a position at a lower salary when health insurance benefits are provided.

This is because it generally costs more for someone to obtain an individual or family health insurance policy than to get employer-sponsored coverage, making the difference of a lower salary negotiable. Businesses offering health insurance can deduct their portion of the contribution toward their employee plan as a business expense and get a tax advantage. If the business is incorporated, the business owner’s insurance and the coverage paid for employees are deductible. Access to health care services and insurance plays a vital role in individual and families lives along side society as a whole.

Institutional Racism and Its Effects on Latino Students

Institutional Racism and Its Effects on Latino Students Patricia Media Argosy University English 101- Composition Lauren Higgins 07-04-13 Abstract The purpose of this paper Is to examine the detrimental effects Institutional racism In education has on Latino academic achievement. Consideration is given to the role of educators in perpetuating racist attitudes; the ineffective acculturation measures and the adverse effects resulting from the diminished academic expectations. Latino children exit K-12 systems deficient of the necessary skills to thrive in higher education or in the workplace; facts which foster complacency.

Qualitative and quantitative data are used to support arguments and observations. Additionally, this paper is intended to promote dialog about a problem that will have long lasting implications on society at large and the growing role Latino will play in affecting the trends In educational paradigm shifts. Institutional Racism and Its Effects on Latino Students The Idea of Institutional racism In education conjures up balloons of the Please vs.. Ferguson era of segregation, when common practice was “separate but equal” institutions.

It was 1954, with the groundbreaking Supreme Court decision of Brown s. Board of Education, that the practice of legal racial segregation was deemed unconstitutional. Its passing represented an end to De cure segregation for Blacks, but had little impact on the segregation of Latino, who were considered demographically White. It was not until 1970 when the Supreme Court in Concerns vs.. Corpus Christi Independent School District ruled that Latino comprised a separate ethnic group, that the full effects of Brown vs.. Board of Education also encompassed Latino.

Although De Cure segregation was outlawed, white flight has, by default, led o De facto segregation, which has resulted In a new breed of institutional racism. A more subtle racism but equally insidious that Indelibly changes the lives of Latino youth by allowing the perpetuation of Inferior Instruction, by striping students of their ethnic pride, and ultimately culminating in fostering an attitude of mediocrity. Imparting instruction; however, this does not diminish the fact that racial bias affects the manner in which it is done.

Garcia (2001) explains the Protect Syndrome as the inclination of many educators to lower the academic expectations of Latino students cause of perceived disadvantages, such as language and poverty. While not intentional, the prejudice becomes so ingrained in the perception, that it becomes increasingly difficult to extrapolate it. The lowering of expectations begins early in the academic tenure of Latino children and creates progressive achievement disparities between them and White peers (Garcia & Jensen, 2009).

Indeed, the intention is to protect and unburden those whom educators perceive as underprivileged, however it is this over- coddling that sets Latino children up for failure by undermining their ability to compete academically, and later professionally. In a 2009 focus group conducted by the National Council of La Razz, 60 Latino youth ages 15 to 17 from Maryland, Tennessee, Rhode Island, and California “… Reported significant ethnic stereotyping by teachers, administrators, and peers.

Such stereotyping, they feel, often leads Hispanic students to be overlooked, excluded, or negatively tracked and results in unequal educational opportunities” (p. 15); a fact which clearly demonstrates the pervasive and detrimental effects of institutional racism; intentional or not. A combination of factors has been effectively employed to systematically strip Latino youth of their ethnic identity, in particular the process of Americanization and the notion of color-blindness.

For purposes of clarity, ethnic identity will be referent to the self-concept one develops as a result of belonging to a particular group in which similar customs, values, beliefs and language is shared. Garcia (2001) describes the “Americanization” theory as one that espouses the notion of the dominant Anglo culture as ideal and one to which Latino should conform by learning English and adopting American values (p. 0). The ultimate goal of those who promote the Americanization theory is to convince Latino youth that internalizing and adopting American culture will be beneficent to their success in mainstream America.

The most recent approach utilized in American schools to divorce Latino students of their ethnic identity is “cloudlessness”. Lucia describes colliding ideology as the misunderstanding that racism exists, the denial of racial and cultural backgrounds, and the devaluation of culturally relevant pedagogies (2010). Its basic premise is that Latino and other non-dominant cultures are inherently flawed and their cultural existence should be dismissed by turning a blind eye.

Both methods convey the negative message to impressionable Latino youth that there is no place in education for their old world culture (Garcia, 2001) and both neglect the fact that today’s ever growing ethnic populations warrant race conscious dialogue. Disproportionately, U. S schools are failing Latino youth and relegating them to repeat cycles of poverty and of unfulfilled dreams. The U. S Department of Education (2010) indicates that Latino youth continue to have the highest drop-out attest of any other group, at about 1 5 percent, which for Latino translates to about 134,000 youth (Fry & Taylor, 2013).

These young high school drop-outs are more apt to engage in low-paying work, to struggle with unemployment, or to depend on government aid as a result of insufficient basic skills knowledge (Foxed, 2010). While the dropout rate is disturbing, more unsettling is the exponential number of students requiring a more highly skilled workforce (Foxed, 2010). By the droves, these students, as a result of teacher expectations, are disengaging from their own education to carry UT the self-fulfilling prophecy of mediocrity.

The fact that 83% of educators are White, middle class women creates another layer of disconnect for Latino students who are unable to positively identify with successful role models who share their background (Gander, 2000). Unable to see themselves reflected in the degree- earning demographics and having few encounters with educators who are adequately trained to understand their plight, Latino youth are simply rendered impotent to affect change, thus completing their assent into hopelessness.

Conversely, some believe that Latino apathy toward education, rather than institutional racism, is what impedes academic success. It is their work ethic and lack of familial support that disengages students from the learning process. If Latino students would stop being lazy and commit to their studies and if parents would get involved and show some interest in their children’s education, instead of blaming poor performance on teacher bias, then success would be inevitable. While these arguments may seem legitimate, they are based on erroneous perceptions.

Madrid (2010) contends that many educators perceive minority status as en of disadvantage, which sets the groundwork for lowered expectations. He further argues that Latino disengagement occurs for multiple reasons, teacher bias being of critical importance. Latino students enter school as equally engaged as White students, but soon discover that their aspirations are incongruent with their academic abilities (Goldsmith, 2004). Latino parents are completely supportive of their children’s academic success, but because of their own low educational attainment, they lack the cognizance of maneuvering the educational system.

They live it is their moral obligation to raise children who are respectful and who behave ethically, but recognize their own deficiencies in academia and consequently defer to the expertise of teachers regarding academic skills (Madrid, 2010). Latino parents wholeheartedly support the role educators play in the lives of their children and expect the same respect for their role. Educators must understand that a lack of formal education does not equate too lack of knowledge. It is those educators who take the time to understand student and parental shortcomings, regardless of race, ho affect the most positive change in student outcomes.

Additionally, some argue, predominantly Latino or minority schools have been allocated additional funding to improve disparities, without success. Federal, state and local governments cannot continue to simply dump money into these schools when it has consistently been proven to be ineffectual. There are predominantly White schools receiving less funding yet yielding much higher learning gains. Agreed, simply dumping money into underperforming schools is fiscally irresponsible.

However, by investing money n correcting the disparate conditions and by requiring strict accountability, schools can become havens for equal educational opportunities for all children. As a result of De facto segregation, a disproportionate number of Latino and Blacks attend schools where poverty and overcrowding are the common denominators (Kola, 2005). When compared to per pupil spending in predominantly minority schools and predominantly White schools, the discrepancy becomes glaringly obvious (Kola, conducted in dilapidated buildings lacking basic amenities such as operational plumbing and learning-conducive classrooms (Kola, 2005).

In terms of resources, many of these schools do not offer access to science labs, media centers and libraries, which by default renders students unable to compete with their more affluent White peers (Madrid, 2010). Most disturbing is the number of underpowered and yet- to -be credentialed teachers employed in high Latino population schools (Madrid, 2010). The more highly trained and seasoned educators opt to teach in schools offering better pay, which happens to be in predominantly White, affluent schools (Gander, 2000). No, simply throwing money at underperforming schools is to the answer, but with appropriate regulations, it is a start.

It is the belief of many that racism in schools is a thing of the past. Many argue that Latino use the “race card” as a way of deflecting culpability in their own sub-standard academic performance. Historically, it is argued, racism was legally sanctioned through segregationist practices, now however racism is illegal, thus allowing every student equal opportunity and equal access to all facets of education. Although it is true that the inherent racism embedded in segregation was outlawed in the 1954 Brown vs.. Board of Education Supreme Court decision, institutional racism continues (Garcia, 2001).

The old brand of institutional racism came in the form of physical violence, abusive language and of legally sanctioned separation, but it has morphed into a less threatening figure. Now it comes in the form of lowered expectations, of less funding, of watered-down curriculum and of outdated materials (Madrid, 2010). If it were simply a matter of using the “race card”, many Latino would be utilizing it to change the abhorrent conditions in their schools, to ensure qualified instructors, ND to demand equally rigorous instruction.

In a 2002 interview featured in the North American Journal of Psychology, speaking on multicultural education, Sonic Unite states, “It also means that teachers need to be aware of the ways in which our schools, rather than focusing on the potential that all children have for learning, have consistently failed some students because of their social identities. ” (Gadded & Shagginess, p. 479). It is time for true equality to permeate our schools and for opportunities to be disseminated uniformly. Although there are many instances of institutional racism currently festering in U.

S schools, the time is ripe for squelching it. It behooves us as a nation to ensure that all children receive quality education imparted by exceptionally qualified instructors and in conditions that are conducive to equitable learning. Institutional racism breeds long-term effects that our children carry with them into the broader society. The Latino population is growing exponentially in this country, which means that exponentially Latino children will be enrolling in public schools. This growth will require a systemic change in the way education is imparted to meet the needs of the hanging demographics.

Institutional Racism And Inequality

Introduction Institutional racism has shaped Inequality with the help of cultural factors. People have become colliding because of the success of some African-Americans. Opera Is the richest African-American in America but she ranks at number 221 of Forbes 2014 400 richest Americans with three billion dollars. (Forbes, 2014, 1) We also have an African-American in the highest office in the world, The White House. For some reason this has led to the belief that African- Americans are no longer struggling. For some reason when one succeeds that means we all have but that is so far from the truth.

As Michelle Alexander puts It, “The fact that some African Americans have experienced great success In recent years does not mean that something akin to a racial caste system no longer exists. No caste system in the united States has ever governed all black people; there have always been free blacks’ and black success stories, even during slavery and Jim Crow. ” (Alexander, 2010, 21) There have been and always will be those African-Americans or people of any race who will reach the top but that doesn’t mean they take the whole race with them.

There are also those African-Americans who conform to the ways of society. Everybody Isn’t meant to go against the status quo. Everybody wont see something wrong with playing by the rules though they will understand they’re being oppressed. “That reality helps to explain why African American leaders such as Booker T. Washington urged blacks to focus on improving themselves rather than on challenging racial discrimination. It is also why the Civil Rights Movement initially met significant resistance among some African Americans in the South. (Alexander, 2010, 210-211) There has always been a divide between the African-American community but one thing we all can agree on Is hat there is something wrong and it needs to change. History For as long as African-Americans have been trying to gain equality there has been some type of racist institution and cultural factors put up to block any progress. “When it became clear that the old caste system was crumbling… A new one would have to take Its place. (Alexander, 2010, 22) History has shown that the majority feels threatened when any minority gets any type of power. When African-Americans refused to abide by slavery they decided to adopt black codes. The black codes were set up to put limits on free “persons of color” or anyone with at least one-eighth Negro Blood. The Civil rights version of the Black Codes allowed persons of color “to acquire, own and dispose of property, to make contracts; to enjoy the fruits of their labor; to sue and be sued; and to receive protection under the law in their persons and property. (Constitutional Rights Foundation, 1865-1866, 1 p) However It put Limits on who they can marry, “Marriage between a white person and a person of color shall be illegal and void. ” (Constitutional Rights Foundation, 1865-1866, 1 p) They put forth vagrancy laws to pressure freedmen to sign contracts that provided that they could e arrested and imprisoned to do hard labor, but whites had the option to take an oath of poverty instead. Apprentice laws made it so that the children of vagrants and black children could be punished and recaptured If they ran away but also fed, clothed, taught a trade and sent to school.

Then there were laws put for by the courts allowed black witnesses only if the case affected the person or their property. Crimes that they felt were committed by freedmen carried the death penalty like rebellions, arson, burglary, and assaulting a white woman. Minor offenses could result in a whipping or a hiring out. Constitutional Rights Foundation, 1865-1866, 1 p) Then the Reconstruction Era brought the black codes to an end and African-Americans began to advance again.

Slavery was abolished by law; African-Americans were considered full citizens, given due process and protection under the law; they were given the right to vote; destitute former slaves were provided with food, clothing, fuel, and other forms of assistance through the Freedman’s Bureau; and public education was granted to blacks and poor whites. These opportunities gave African-Americans the inch they needed to go the mile. Educated blacks began to populate legislatures, open schools, and start successful businesses. With being allowed to vote came poll taxes, literacy tests and whatever else they could find to prevent blacks from voting.

With political gain came the backlash of Jim Crow laws. (Alexander, 2010, 29-30) “As African Americans obtained political power and began the long march toward greater social and economic equality, whites reacted with panic and outrage. ” (Alexander, 2010, 30) UK Klux Klan went out bombing, lynching and participating in mob violence against Reconstruction governments and leaders. Due to this terrorist campaign, the federal government commenced federal civil rights legislation and funding for the Freedman’s Bureau. In this Jim Crow era, vagrancy laws were enforced vigorously.

These laws opened up the market for convict leasing and convicts were seen as slaves of the state. They had no legal rights and were mostly African-American. This era also brought segregation laws with it. (Alexander, 2010, 31-34) White Supremacy During the Jim Crow era, separate but equal was the supposed law of the land. Even before it was legalized the government needed to enforce it in order to keep from the axing of races. They also knew what the coalition of races could do. Bacon’s rebellion showed them Just how powerful a multiracial alliance could be.

In order for the majority to protect their superior status they relied on other means one of which being, white supremacy. “White supremacy became a religion of sorts. ” (Alexander, 2010, 26) People were taught to believe that whites were superior. It was a consequence of slavery. And once they saw another uprising of a multiracial coalition by the Populists, they proposed segregation laws to drive a wedge between poor whites and African-Americans. They needed to get an uprising of class out of the equation. They taught in their churches that Jesus was white. They only sold white dolls for a long time.

The television showed them that white is beautiful and black is mean and nasty. Since the beginning of our nation, white supremacy has been the real law of the land. This country was built to keep the majority, the majority. Laws are made and kept by the majority. The majority is white. They will push their laws on whomever to maintain their power. I noticed how relevant White Supremacy was when I went to the community service location for The Big Event. I don’t remember exactly where the place was but I do remember someone saying that the area was where poor whites lived.

It amazed me at what they considered poor. There was a car in front of every town home. The townhouses looked nice and well kept. The people were antisocial. It was Just so much different from what I noticed at my first pose culture that Wilson discusses when you were down in the black neighborhood. Even the trash was different. It was more food rappers than alcohol bottles. It Just really amazed me how real white supremacy really is. The New Jim Crow As times moved closer to the Civil Rights time period, the majority switched tactics room segregation to mass incarceration.

The more minorities fought for equal rights the more they realized that they couldn’t get away with it for much longer. They decided to change it up Just a little. They shifted the focus from institutional racism to cultural racism. They made the public think that poor people were poor because of their own doing. They told the American public that people were poor because they were involved in street crime, illegal drug use, and were delinquent. Richard Nixon decided to go at these problems head on by declaring a War on Drugs and making it is public enemy number one. Alexander, 2010, 40-48) In 1982 President Reagan carried on the War on Drugs. At this time people were more worried about race than drugs. They became worried as the funding for agencies enforcing drug laws grew dramatically and the funding for agencies responsible for the care, treatment and prevention was reduced. At the time the drug war had started many African- Americans were suffering due to globalization and denationalization. “The decline in legitimate employment opportunities among inner-city residents increased incentives to sell drugs-?most notably crack cocaine. Alexander, 2010, 51) Instead of the government helping these individuals get Jobs they decided to capitalize on their pain. They exploited blacks to the most degree for the weaknesses they found. It amazed me in the wire to see them legalize drug use. They put all the drug addicts into one section of the city to reduce crime in one district only to find that their behavior wouldn’t change no matter where you put them. Bodies were still popping up, people still found a way to get guns in the free zone, crime occurred even under the watch of the police officers, and they thought this was okay.

Then in the Pursuit- Ego Myth you could see how devastating it was for blacks to lose Jobs and the major change in the economy as well as housing situations once crack came into the picture. One thing everything we watched had in common was the destruction of communities and families due to the outbreak of crack and other drugs. “As a nation, though, we had a choice about how to respond. Some countries faced with rising drug crime or seemingly intractable rates of drug abuse and drug addiction chose the path of drug treatment, prevention, and education or economic investment in crime-ridden communities. Alexander, 2010, 51) Instead of putting our money into drug rehabilitation we decided to go to war. Two billion dollars was allocated for the antiradar crusade which required the military to participate in narcotics control efforts, allowed the death penalty for some drug crimes, and authorized admission of legally obtained evidence in drug trials. The Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986 included mandatory minimum sentencing for distribution of cocaine that were more severe for crack users who happened to be majority black than for powder cocaine user who were majority white.

In 1988 this act authorized public housing to evict tenants who low drug use in or near their home, eliminated federal benefits for those convicted of a drug offense, expanded the use of death penalty for crimes, and new mandatory minimum sentencing. (Alexander, 2010, 51-53) “The results were immediate. As law 56) Just like during the time of Jim Crow laws the prisoners in the Jail system were disproportionately black. Then Bill Clinton came into office and enforced the “three strikes you’re out” law and escalated the drug war. The Clinton Administration’s ‘tough on crime’ policies resulted in the largest increases in federal and state prison inmates of any president in American history. (Alexander, 2010, 56) Each President sought out to be better than the last when it came to the drug war. Before the drug war had even begun, crime in America was reducing. I would hate to think that the things that occurred in The Wire were based on true events. I would hate to think that they pinned drugs on people, legalized drug use until they got caught, or even just harassed African-Americans long enough until they had something substantial to pin on them. Alexander, 2010, 56-57) “More than 2 million people found themselves behind bars at the turn of the twenty-first century, and millions more were relegated o the margins of mainstream society, banished to a political and social space not unlike Jim Crow, where discrimination in employment, housing, and access to education was perfectly legal, and where they could be denied the right to vote. ” (Alexander, 2010, 58) This made way for the New Jim Crow. Just like the President’s during the War on Drugs, conservative white elites also competed with each other to be more oppressive when it came to Jim Crow Laws.

Both have legalized discrimination. (Alexander, 2010, 191-192) “The forms of discrimination that apply to ex drug offenders… Mean that, once prisoners are released, they enter a parallel social universe-?much like Jim Crow-?in which discrimination in nearly every aspect of social, political, and economic life is perfectly legal. Large majorities of black men… Are once again subject to legalized discrimination effectively barring them from full integration into mainstream, white society.

Mass incarceration has nullified many of the gains of the Civil Rights Movement, putting millions of black men back in a position reminiscent of Jim Crow. ” (Alexander, 2010, 192) When a person is convicted of a felony they are giving up their right to vote, right to serve on a Jury, citizenship sights, right to own a home or live in public housing, right to work anywhere they apply to, right to education and have a debt they must pay. In the Jim Crow era the right to vote was taken away by poll taxes, literacy tests, grandfather clauses, and Just like today, felon disenfranchisement laws.

In the Jim Crow era many black defendants had all white Jurors, meaning blacks were excluded from the Jury process much like criminals are today. When you exclude felons or anybody from the rest of society you create segregation. In the Jim Crow era there was legalized racial segregation through the decision of Please v. Ferguson and today there is legalized segregation against felons. Felons are segregated by being put in prisons and are released into the ghetto away from mainstream society. Then there’s the symbolic production of race.

Slavery defined African-Americans as slaves, Jim Crow era defined African- Americans as second-class citizens, and today African-Americans (mostly men) are defined as criminals. (Alexander, 2010, 193-197) “Every racial caste system in the United States has produced racial stigma. Mass incarceration is no exception. Racial stigma is produced by defining negatively what it means to be black. The stigma of race was once the shame of the slave; then it was the shame of the second-class citizen; today the stigma of race is the shame of the criminal. (Alexander, 2010, Racial Stigma and mass incarceration has not been taken lightly by the African- American community. You have very influential rappers like Outpace Shaker, Common, Kenya West, J Cole, and Kindlier Lamar who are speaking out on the injustice. Outpace Shaker has a song called, “Holler if Hay Hear Me” in which he expresses views closely related to Malcolm X. He also criticizes Martin Luther King and discusses the crack epidemic. From block to block we snatching hearts and Jacking marks. And the punk police can’t fade me, and maybe we can have peace someday, G. But right now I got my mind set up.

Looking down the barrel of my nine, get up cause it’s time to make the payback fat. To my brothers on the block better stay strapped, black. And accept no substitutes. I bring truth to the youth tear the roof off the whole school. Oh no, I wont turn the other cheek. In case hay can’t see us while we burn the other week. Now we got a enigma smash, blast. How long will it last ’till the pop’ getting MO’ cash? Until then, raise up! Tell my young black males, blaze up! Life’s a mess don’t stress, test. I’m giving but be thankful that you’re living, blessed. Much love to my brothers in the pen.

See hay when they free hay if not when they shove me in. ” He begins by speaking of the Black Panther movement spreading to win hearts and minds so that there can be peace one day but for now he’s going to avenge his unjustly felled brothers. He’s telling his brothers to stay true to their black selves and stay packed with a gun for protection. He wants the black youth to not conform to the white supremacy being taught in schools. Outpace refuses to turn the other cheek because of his thug like nature. He fights back. He begins to talk about drugs and the escape weed gives him.

He’s seen his brothers smashed due to the crack epidemic started by Reagan and he’s trying to figure out when it will fade and give the poor more money. Until then he wants the youth to fight oppression and not give up while they’re still alive. Last line he basically is saying that he knows the odds are against him so he’ll either be there when his brothers get out or meet them there. Outpace Shaker was very enlightened for a man at his age. Unfortunately he lived by the gun and died by the gun. This one verse eternally could have been in the intro for The New Jim Crow or played in class.

Outpace was ready for war against cops if it came to it. Common is very enlightened as well though recently he has wanted to enjoy the spoils of imperialism so he’s been appealing to White America and the interest of establishment. He has been making ignorant comments like blacks should “extend a hand of love to white supremacy. ” Old Common wrote a song called “A Song for Asset. ” The song is about a member and activist of the Black Panther Party and Black Liberation Army, Asset Luggage Shaker who was charged with murder, attempted murder, armed robbery, bank beery, and kidnapping.

She was under trial for several years before being found guilty of first-degree murder of Officer Forester who was killed during the Turnpike Shootout. There were lights and sirens, gunshots firing. Cover your eyes as I describe a scene so violent. Seemed like a bad dream, she laid in a blood puddle. Blood bubbled in her chest, cold air brushed against open flesh. No room to rest, pain consumed each breath. Shot twice with her hands up. Police questioned but shot before she answered. One Panther lost his life, the other ran for his. Scandalous the police were as they kicked and beat her.

Here Common is speaking about the shootout Asset was convicted of. It reminds me so much of what Black America is and most likely will continue to. So many black lives have been taken due to police brutality. The fact there’s a movement or washrag that says #Handsomeness’s, frightens me. History keeps repeating itself because nothing is being changed. Everything is being covered up and laws are being added to a vague, living, breathing Constitution. Modern day famous rappers like Kenya, J Cole, and Kindlier are still speaking on these same things.

Tuba’s song came out in 1993 and Common in 2000. Kenya released New Slaves in 2013. My momma was raised in the era when clean water was only served to the fairer skin. Doing’ clothes you would have thought I had help but they wasn’t satisfied unless I picked the cotton myself. You see it’s broke enigma racism. That’s that “Don’t touch anything in the store. ” And it’s rich enigma racism. That’s that “Come in, please buy more” “What you want, a Bentley? Fur coat? A diamond chain? All you blacks want all the same things. ” Used to only be insignias, now everybody playing’.

Spending’ everything on Alexander Wang. New Slaves. Kenya begins this song talking about how his mother was raised in the Jim Crow era. Then he starts talking about his line of clothing and how people weren’t satisfied with his work until he went to work overseas making his own clothes. These first two verses he’s referring back to the old racism then he talks about the new racism. Poor blacks can’t go in to stores without being told not to touch anything because they might be stereotyped as thieves. Then it’s the rich racism that affects everyone because everyone wants the latest fashion.

This song took me back to how crack was meant to break blacks and ended up affecting more whites than blacks. Reagan didn’t expect it UT he was willing to let it happen as long as he could incarcerate blacks and be lenient on whites to ensure white supremacy remained. Kindlier Lamar continues on with this notion of a new slave in his song called Vanity Slave. ” For the purpose of this paper I would rather focus on his “The Blacker The Berry’ song. You never liked us anyway, f*** your friendship, I meant it. I’m African-American, I’m African.

I’m black as the moon, heritage of a small village. Pardon my residence, came from the bottom of mankind. My hair is nappy, my d*** is big, my nose is round and wide. You hate me don’t you? You hate my people, your plan is to terminate my culture. You’re f*****’ evil I want you to recognize that I’m a proud monkey… You sabotage my community, making’ a killing’. You made me a killer, emancipation of a real enigma. Kindlier starts this verse by taking himself out of the American culture because the real face of black culture isn’t seen in today’s ideal American Beauty.

Ever since blacks were brought to America they have been considered as the bottom of mankind. He goes on to describe the wonderful yet stereotypical characteristics of black people. Then he goes on to attack the people who enforced slavery, Jim Crow saws, lynching, redlining, segregation, crack epidemic and all institutional and cultural racist ways of keeping black people at the bottom of the totem pole. Then he takes back what was meant to be a racial slur and proclaims it loudly, proud monkey. He then accuses the listener of exploiting blacks and turning them into killers but they can be freed through violence.

My favorite rapper of all time, J Cole brings it home with his song Runaway. “Forget this chain, cause this anti me… We so elated, we celebrated like Obama waited until his last day in office to tell the nation, brothers is getting their reparations. A man can dream, can’t he? No disrespect, in terms of system and was sad to learn that he actually couldn’t bring any. That’s what I get for thinking, this world is fair. They let a brother steer the ship and never told him that the ship was siskin’ but I got other s*** to think about, like my bank account.

Forget that watch, you paid too much for it. You ‘ought to be ashamed. When brothers back home be dreading when the seasons change cause they anti got no heat and they anti got no AC. Walter distribution fired my homier, he Just had a baby. You wonder why it’s been so many B and Ex.’s lately. He starts off by talking about a chain Jay Z gave him but that isn’t him. He’s not going to be another black that proudly flaunt chains, as African-American’s in the slavery era wanted nothing more than to be freed from them.

Black people were excited to get a black president because they thought he would invoke change only to realize he was the captain of a ship that was sinking too deep for him to save. He’s being held back by the system. Even the White House knows how to oppress a black man. Then he starts talking about how so many people that make it are wrapped up into materialism but forget to go back home and elf the people they grew up with. Corporations like Walter fire people all the time but they wonder why it’s been so many breaking and entering. This goes back to the beginning of the war on drugs.

People get fired or Jobs get taken away and they result to either violence or drugs if they can’t get back on their feet soon. Conclusion How do we stop this? How do we stop institutional racism? We start with a conversation. The more people become aware, the more change that will be invoked. People must be aware of the cloudlessness that diseases our country. “The colliding public consensus that prevails in America today-?I. . , the widespread belief that race no longer matters-?has blinded us to the realities of race in our society and facilitated the emergence of a new caste system. (Alexander, 2010, 11-12) What people don’t know about they can’t change. The riots across the country in response to police brutality have brought about some awareness of the racial aspect of our criminal Justice system but most aren’t aware of the many injustices our felons receive. Many really don’t see mass incarceration as a racial Justice or civil rights crisis. Once the conversation is done and people are aware of the system that is enslaving so many of our citizens then I believe we should write a new constitution. Our constitution has too much life and was built on slavery.